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Essay写不出来?如何变得强大?

Dueduedue官方博客2018-05-17essay代写 431 0A+A-

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Lord Heseltine's Letter to May

什么叫做好的英文写作能力?

国内学生可能认为,句型愈复杂,用字愈难懂,就表示英文能力愈好。

我收到很多留学文书,托福雅思作文,句型无敌复杂,可是却是从头错到尾。

英文句型主词、动词、附属子句怎么架构非常的清楚,不是加一个which还是that就当做「子句」继续接下去,愈长愈励害。

也不是把所有的字都代换成更少见的字,也不管新的字是否适用于这个状况,就表示单字量大。

这篇新闻报导有完整的刊出 Lord Heseltine 写给英国首相 May的信。 Heseltine由于不赞成英国脱欧,被May开除。开除后,他写了这一封信给May。

事件背景只需要大致了解就好。我希望同学看的是信的内容、句型、用字。

句型非常有变化性,Heseltine使用一般句型,穿插复杂句型,也有三个字成立一句的超短句子,出现两次。

用字都是用正常的英文字,有一些字同学可能看不懂,不过这是政治相关的字,还是属于正常英文单字量范围的字。

句子长短参差,这样阅读起来才有节奏。中文句型讲究排比,所以都要一样长比较好听。英文句子则是要有节奏才会好听。

这一封信是所谓的英国「上流阶级」的人写出来的英文。学术英文中有一些学者也会用这一类的英文,尤其是文史学科。

但是需要注意的是,句型虽然长,架构还是很清楚,意思还是很好懂。

这封信参了两句各只有三个字。

有时我把同学的文章改短,同学一看一句只有十个字不到,反问我:「句子这么短,英文看起来会不会很差?」

其实愈好的英文写作,愈会出现句型长短参差的写作,无论是写正式的信,写学术文章,写小说,都会有这种现象。

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英文讲解:

标蓝色的是原信件句子,标绿色的是文法句型。

I appreciate your kind remarks about my service to our country and our party.

第一句是标准的主词加动词句型。

Particularly I am grateful for your thanks for the help I have been able to give to the recent coalition and then the majority governments led by David Cameron and yourself.

I am grateful for N.

Your thanks 中的 thanks是名词,句型为 your thanks for N. = your thanks for the help (which) I have been able to give to N. and N.

I am grateful for your thanks for the N.

I am grateful for your thanks for the help which I have been able to give to A and then B.

A = the recent coalition

B = the majority governments led by David Cameron and yourself

give to 之后,接两个名词,第一个是 the recent coalition,第二个是 the majority government。这里他是在说2010年英国国会大选的时候,成立coalition政府,因为没有任何一党有过半席次。

2015年的国会大选,Conservatives大胜,有过半席次,所以是 the majority government。

The majority governments用复数,是因为一开始是 Cameron带领的,后来因为脱欧,Cameron下台,变成May带领,所有两个governments。

I was never a member of one of these governments, a point I invariably made when addressing audiences about my work. I offered advice which ministers were free to accept, reject or ignore.

a point 那一句为前面的部份的同位格, I was never a member of one of these governments 这件事,就是 a point I invariably made.

I offered advice which ministers were free to accept, reject or ignore.

可以注意到的一点是,or 前面没有逗号,如果有逗号的话,这是连结三个项目,最后一个项目之前加逗号,这个叫 Oxford comma。英文文法中,有一些人认为一定要加这个逗号,有一些人觉得不需要加。这是一个会引发文法学家大战的话题。

正常来说,不需要加,除非 A, B or C 中的 C特别的长,为了不要让大家误会,会加一个逗号。

You say in your letter that I will understand the necessity to end that relationship. Here we disagree.

上面这一句只有三个字。由于只有三个字,节奏特别明显,语气有礼貌,而坚定的反对。

上面这一句只有三个字,下一句则无敌复杂。

In the referendum campaign it was recognised that so deeply held and so divided were the views on both sides that members of the Cabinet and other ministers were free to argue and vote against the government’s European policy without sanction.

句型为:

... it was recognised that so deeply held ... were the views that N. + V.

... it was recognised that so deeply held ... were the views that members .... were ...

be free to argue and vote 中的 and 是连结两个动词。

这个句型跟以下句子一样:

We saw that the pig was so fat that it could not pass through the door.

It was recognised that so deeply held were the views that members were free to argue.

超简单句型,搭配超复杂句型,节奏感非常的棒。有坚定的三个字表达反对意见的summary,接下来一串用复杂句型讲述反对的背景。

In my speech I made clear that my vote neither held up nor denied your ability to trigger Article 50.

I made clear that N. + V.

neither did something nor did something

Indeed the urgency about which we heard so much at the time seems in the event somewhat diminished.

The urgency seems diminished.

We heard so much about the urgency at the time.

My only vote was designed to give the House of Commons a second chance to enshrine in law a commitment you yourself had already given to allow Parliament a vote on any Brexit deal.

My only vote was designed to give N. + 间接受词.

= My only vote was designed to give the House of Commons a second chance.

to enshrine in law a commitment (which) you yourself had already given (in order) to allow Parliament a vote on any Brexit deal

The commons declined the advice of the Lords and I and most Peers accepted the position.

正常来说,如果and是连结两句句子,应该要加逗号。所以Lords跟 and中间应该要有逗号。这里我在挑毛病。

最后两句最有力。

The simple fact remains that you have changed your mind since the excellent speech you made in the Referendum campaign arguing that we should remain in the European Union. I have not.

同样的,是一句非常复杂的句型,搭配一句只有三个字的结尾。

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