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如何引用参考文献?【Essay代写】教你3种方法

Dueduedue官方博客2017-08-18essay代写 601 0A+A-

在引用一篇文章时,除了标明题目之外还需要标明文章所在的期刊或书籍。下文中将介绍几种不同的引用标准:APA(美国心理协会)标准,MLA(美国现代语言协会)标准和芝加哥标准。

APA(美国心理协会)标准

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引用作者姓名时按照先姓后名的顺序,多个作者名字之间用逗号隔开,最后两个姓名之间没有逗号,用&符号连接。

  • Doe, J.

  • Doe, J. & Johnson, S. Q.

  • Smith, R., Orion, D. & Johnson, S. Q.

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注明出版日期。如果只能查询到期刊发表的年份,标上年份即可,如果可以查询到具体的出版日期,就按照年,月,日的格式进行引用,以句号结束。

  • Doe, J. (2001).

  • Smith, R., Orion, D. & Johnson, S. Q. (2011, July 15).

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注明被引用文章的标题。不要使用斜体、下划线或者引号。标题的首字母大写,如果有副标题的话,则冒号后的第一个字母也大写,最后以句号结束。

  • Doe, J. (2001).Recent breakthroughs in diagnosing mental illness.

  • Smith, R., Orion, D. & Johnson, S. Q. (2011, July 15). Bone-Chilling: A history of literary horror.

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注明你引用的文章所在期刊的编辑姓名。编辑姓名和期刊名称以“In”为前缀,按照先名后姓的格式进行引用。如果编辑姓名有两个,用&记号进行连接;三个以上的名字则用逗号连接。如果杂志的编辑只有一名,在名字后的括号里加上ED.缩写。多个编辑则采用EDs.缩写。

  • Doe, J. (2001).Recent breakthroughs in diagnosing mental illness. In J. Rowell (Ed.),

  • Smith, R., Orion, D. & Johnson, S. Q. (2011, July 15). Bone-Chilling: A history of literary horror. In A. Hoffman & C. G. Brooke (Eds.),

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注明期刊名称。首字母大写,标题加上引号。

  • Doe, J. (2001).Recent breakthroughs in diagnosing mental illness. In J. Rowell (Ed.), Essays on psychology

  • Smith, R., Orion, D. & Johnson, S. Q. (2011, July 15). Bone-Chilling: A history of literary horror. In A. Hoffman & C. G. Brooke (Eds.), Genre literature through the ages

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给出页码范围。插入文章所在的页码范围,以pp作为前缀,前缀之后有个句号。

  • Doe, J. (2001).Recent breakthroughs in diagnosing mental illness. In J. Rowell (Ed.), Essays on psychology (pp. 24-38).

  • Smith, R., Orion, D. & Johnson, S. Q. (2011, July 15). Bone-Chilling: A history of literary horror. In A. Hoffman & C. G. Brooke (Eds.), Genre literature through the ages (pp. 102-118).

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注明出版商的姓名和所在地。列出出版公司的所在地和公司名称,中间用冒号隔开,以句号作为结束。

  • Doe, J. (2001).Recent breakthroughs in diagnosing mental illness. In J. Rowell (Ed.), Essays on psychology (pp. 24-38). New York: Big Time Publisher.

  • Smith, R., Orion, D. & Johnson, S. Q. (2011, July 15). Bone-Chilling: A history of literary horror. In A. Hoffman & C. G. Brooke (Eds.), Genre literature through the ages (pp. 102-118). New York: Big Time Publisher.

MLA(美国现代语言协会)标准

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引用作者姓名时采用包括姓、名、中间名在内的全名。第一作者采用先姓后名的格式,其余作者采用先名后姓的格式。三个及以上的姓名用逗号进行连接,最后两个名字间用“and”连接,以句号结束:

  • Doe, John.

  • Doe, John and Samuel Quentin Johnson.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson.

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引用文章标题。所有的主要词汇都采用首字母大写,标题以句号结束,给标题加上引号:

  • Doe, John."Recent Breakthroughs in Diagnosing Mental Illness."

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror."

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注明文章所在的期刊名。给期刊名加上引号,每个主要词汇均首字母大写,以句号结束:

  • Doe, John."Recent Breakthroughs in Diagnosing Mental Illness."Essays on Psychology.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." Genre Literature through the Ages.

11.jpg

注明期刊的编辑姓名。采用先名后姓的全名,在姓名之前加上Ed.缩写,如果有不止一位编辑名则加上EDS.缩写,以句号结束:

  • Doe, John."Recent Breakthroughs in Diagnosing Mental Illness."Essays on Psychology.Ed. Josh Rowell.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." Genre Literature through the Ages.Eds. Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke.

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注明出版商信息。列出出版商所在的城市、出版商名称以及出版年份。这里只需要引用年份即可,不需要具体到日期。在城市名和出版商名称之间用冒号相连,与年份用逗号相连,最后以句号结尾:

  • Doe, John."Recent Breakthroughs in Diagnosing Mental Illness."Essays on Psychology.Ed. Josh Rowell. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2001.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." Genre Literature through the Ages.Eds. Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2011.

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注明被引用文章所在的页码。标出文章所在的第一页和最后一页的页码。用连字号相连并以句号结尾:

  • Doe, John."Recent Breakthroughs in Diagnosing Mental Illness."Essays on Psychology.Ed. Josh Rowell. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2001. 24-38.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." Genre Literature through the Ages.Eds. Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2011. 102-118.

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标出出版方式。如果是以书籍形式出版,则标上“Print”。以电子书形式出版则标上“Electronic”。如果电子书是以网站形式发表的则标上“Web”。最后以句号结尾:

  • Doe, John."Recent Breakthroughs in Diagnosing Mental Illness."Essays on Psychology.Ed. Josh Rowell. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2001. 24-38. Print.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." Genre Literature through the Ages.Eds. Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2011. 102-118. Electronic.

芝加哥标准

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引用文章的作者名。如果是在脚注或尾注中引用作者名,则采用先名后姓的格式。如果是在参考文献列表中进行引用,则对第一作者采用先姓后名的格式,其余作者使用先名后姓的格式。脚注后以逗号结尾,参考文献列表中以句号结尾:

  • Robert Smith, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson,

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson.

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注明引用文章的标题。给引用文章标题加上引号,主要词汇均首字母大写,脚注和尾注中以逗号结尾,参考文献列表中以句号结尾:

  • Robert Smith, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson, "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror,"

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror."

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注上被引用文章所在期刊的名称。在书名前加上“in”。用引号引用书名,主要词汇均首字母大写,脚注和参考文献列表中均以逗号结尾:

  • Robert Smith, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson, "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror," in Genre Literature through the Ages,

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." In Genre Literature through the Ages,

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引用编辑姓名。脚注中在编辑名前加上缩写“ed.”,参考文献列表中在编辑名前加上短语“edited by”。在脚注中只列出第一编辑的姓名,如果不止一位编辑的话,就在后面用缩写“et al”代替。参考文献列表中需要列出所有编辑的姓名:

  • Robert Smith, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson, "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror," in Genre Literature through the Ages, ed. Alexandra Hoffman, et al.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." In Genre Literature through the Ages, edited by Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke,

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标出文章所在的页码范围。只在参考文献列表中标注,范围包括文章所在的全部页码:

  • Robert Smith, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson, "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror," in Genre Literature through the Ages, ed. Alexandra Hoffman, et al.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." In Genre Literature through the Ages, edited by Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke, 102-118.

20.jpg

注上出版商的信息。包括出版商所在的城市和出版商名称,其中用冒号隔开,在出版商信息后加上冒号,再加上出版年份。当这些标注内容以脚注形式出现时需要加上括号作为插入内容,参考文献列表中则不必,以句号结束即可:

  • Robert Smith, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson, "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror," in Genre Literature through the Ages, ed. Alexandra Hoffman, et al. (New York: Big Time Publisher, 2011),

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." In Genre Literature through the Ages, edited by Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke, 102-118. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2011.

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标出被引用部分所在的页码。这只出现在脚注中。标出你所引用的内容所在的那一页,以句号结束:

  • Robert Smith, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson, "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror," in Genre Literature through the Ages, ed. Alexandra Hoffman, et al. (New York: Big Time Publisher, 2011), 111.

  • Smith, Robert, Danielle Orion, and Samuel Quentin Johnson. "Bone-Chilling: A History of Literary Horror." In Genre Literature through the Ages, edited by Alexandra Hoffman and Charles Gilbert Brooke, 102-118. New York: Big Time Publisher, 2011.

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