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代写过117篇essay,我发现这些错误几乎......

Dueduedue官方博客2018-05-16essay代写 736 0A+A-

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这一篇是基于我多年英文代写的经验整理出来的,说明英文标点符号、大小写、空格如何使用,英文文章如何分段,并说明几个常见英文写作错误。

这些小细节就英文写作程度是对应于西方人国小程度的东西。华人学生在学习英文的时候,常常把心力花在背更高深的单字,使用更复杂的句型,小地方却错很多。

这就好像一位西方人学习中文,孔子说什么,孟子说什么背了一堆,写出来的句子却是:

我朋友跟我说, "我明天早上要搭车去北京."

用英文的标点符号写中文,不伦不类。

这些小东西如果错,西方读者可能会觉得同学英文写作程度非常差。实际上不见得英文有那么差,连国小程度都不到,只是我们语言背景不一样,这些东西不太会注意到而已。

这一篇文章我点出几个最常见的英文写作问题,无论是考托福雅思,或是商业书信往来,或是留学的时候写英文论文,都可以用得到。

使用方式:如果要查这一篇文章是否有讲到你有疑问的句型,可以用 CONTROL + F来搜寻。

这篇文章我会陆陆续续不定期更新。

中文 vs. 英文主词动词观念

中文句子没有主词跟动词的观念,所以我们在写英文文章的时候,常常会想到就加逗号,或是想到就写一个新的句子。中文的逗号没有很固定的用法,大概就是觉得够长了,该换一口气,就加一个逗号,讲够久了,觉得该加句号,就加一个句号。

英文的句型是非常固定的,每一句都有一个主词,一个动词。英文中的所谓一个「句子」,意思就是有主词,有动词。华人学生最常出状况的是动词,往往句子已经有一个主要动词了,想加另一个意思,中文是直接逗号就加下去没问题,英文却要变化第二个动词,把第二个动词放在子句之中或是用and来连结。

像是There is a man. 主词是there,动词是is,如果要再加一个动词,像是这个人在跑步,不能直接加变成There is a man run. 要写There is a man who is running. ' Who is running' 是一个关代子句,或者写There is a man running. 'Running' 是分词构句。

主要句子、附属子句标点符号怎么使用,哪一些字可以单独使用于一个句子,哪一些字只能用于副属子句,都规定得非常清楚。

英文句子有主词有动词。

英文句子有主词有动词。

英文句子有主词有动词。

很重要,说三遍。写英文不要像写中文那样,换口气加一个逗号就接着讲下去。

中文 vs. 英文大小写观念

中文没有大小写这个大家都知道,写英文的时候要注意,中文没有大小写,但是英文有。哪一些字会大写有规定,不要忽然大写忽然小写,不依照规定,也没事不要用全大写。

学校、机构、公司等等名称,除了介系词跟冠词之外,都需要每一个字的第一个字母大写。

像是:

The Institute of Cancer Research

不要写成:

The institute of Cancer Research

The Institute Of Cancer Research

The INSTITUTE of CANCER Research

书或文章的篇名,有两种写法,一种是除了介系词跟冠词之外,每一个字的第一个字母大写,另一种是只有第一个字大写,其它都用小写(但是专有名词如果固定要用大写,书名中还是需要用大写)。比较常见的是第一种。

像是:

Algorithms to Live by: The Computer Science of Human Decisions

Algorithms to live by: the computer science of human decisions

不要写成:

Algorithms to live by: the Computer science of human decisions

Algorithms To Live By: The Computer Science Of Human Decisions

中文 vs. 英文标点符号观念

中文标点符号的使用规范比较松散。中文逗号的使用方式大概就是该换气了就可以加一个逗号。英文的标点符号加哪边,该不该加,加哪个标点符号规定得很清楚。

中文的标点符号是用全型打出,占的空间跟一个中文字一样大。写中文如果要加空格的时候,一个空格跟一个中文字一样大,眼睛不用太尖就可以看得出来。

英文的标点符号跟空格跟一个英文字母一样大,蛮多华人同学看不出来。看不出来的时候,请在WORD中打开「显示格式化标记」,有加空格会显示标记。

空格使用方式

英文句子跟句子中间是一个空格。标点符合之后打一个空格,然后接下一句。很多同学会用两个空格,这是打字机的打法,现在用电脑打字是空一个空格。

写英文的时候,逗号、句号、冒号等等之后,一定会加一个空格。注意以下例子中有标颜色的地方。

不要写:Thesis title : The English Reformation。

要写 Thesis title: The English Reformation,注意到冒号后面应该要有一个空格,但前面没有空格。

不要写:I learned a lot in university , and I continued to take courses in accounting.

要写 I learned a lot in university, and I continued to take courses in accounting. 注意逗号前面没有空格,后面有一个空格。

不要写:I read the paper " The English Reformation in the Sixteenth Century."

要写:I read the paper "The English Reformation in the Sixteenth Century." 注意双引号前面有空格,后面没有空格。

名字的写法

常常在CV或推荐信中看到名字写成 Chang, Da-Chong。这种 last name, first name 的写法通常只出现于学术文章的书目之中,或是特定的填公文填表格的时候会规定要用这个写法。

一般来说CV上一定是先名再姓,也就是要写Da-Chong Chang。推荐信最下方打出名字的时候,也是要写 Da-Chong Chang或是 Professor Da-Chong Chang,不要写 Professor Chang, Da-Chong。

推荐信中推荐人称呼被推荐人的方式:

第一次提到写称呼加全名,像是 Mr. Da-Chong Chang。第二次之后可以写缩短版。推荐人跟被推荐人很熟,或是双方不居小节,推荐人会用first name称被推荐人,会称之为 Da-Chong。如果推荐人跟被推荐人比较不熟,或是推荐人是比较传统比较严肃的个性,则称被推荐人为 Mr. Chang。但不要写 Mr. Da-Chong,既不正式也不随和,

名词单复数或冠词

英文绝大多数的名词,要不然会用复数,要不然会加冠词。像是「我搭公车去公园」,不要讲 I take bus to park. 要讲 I take a bus to the/a park.

The 跟 a/an 的差别是,the = this/that/these/those,指特定的东西。 A/an是指不特定的东西。

像是:

I like to play basketball with the friend.

I like to play basketball with a friend.

I like to play basketball with my friends.

第一句意思是「我喜欢跟那一位朋友打篮球」。第二句意思是「我喜欢跟我很多朋友中的其中任何一位打篮球」。第三句意思是「我喜欢跟朋友们打篮球。」

中文没有单复数,也没有冠词,名词就是名词,不做变化。英文高达九成五以上的名词都会用复数,不然就是加冠词。不加冠词也不用复数,听起来会非常的中式英文。

引号使用方式

不要写:I read the paper 「The English Reformation in the Sixteenth Century」。这是中文的引号,英文没有这个标点符号。

注意双引号、单引号的方向,开始的引号是往右边斜,结束的引号是往左边斜。

表达所有格,如 the boy's cake 的单引号是往左边斜。

引用别人的话的时候,不要写:She said, "Watch out! "

要写:She said, "Watch out!" 注意引用的话,跟引号之间没有空格。

如果看不出来有没有空格,记得把WORD的显示标点符号打开。

横线的用法

英文横线分三种,英文名称为hyphen, en-dash, and em-dash,以长度来说,hyphen最短,em-dash最长。后两者会用n以及m命名,就是因为m写起来比较长,所以em-dash是比较长一些的横线。

一般人不会那么讲究,只会分两种。这里只说明hyphen以及en-dash的不同。 En-dash就中文来说是破折号,hyphen才是横线。

Hyphen的使用时机

比如说说明日期为 09/2012-04/2013,中间会用一个横线,横线长短要一致,有时候电脑会把横线拉长一点,变成 – 这样的长度。全篇CV应该统一用同样的长度。

横线前后可以有空格,也可以没有空格,但是一定要左右对称。

不要写 09/2012 -04/2013,前面有空格,后面没有。

要写09/2012-04/2013,要不然就是写09/2012 - 04/2013。要不然就是横线前后都有空格,要不然就前后都没有空格。

另一个使用hyphen的状况是像 a ten-person team。注意不要写 a ten- person team,不要横线前面没有空格,而后面有,也不要反过来,前面有空格而后面没有。

Em-dash的使用时机

Em-dash通常在电脑上连打两个hyphen,电脑会自动拉长变成em-dash。

Em-dash使用于补充说明,或是提供例子。

比如:I love fruits—apples, pears, and oranges.

He finally arrived—more than half an hour late.

通常em-dash前后都没有空格,但是有一些期刊或报纸会统一在em-dash前后都加空格。注意有没有加空格,一定是左右对齐,不要一边有空格,一边没有,也一定要全篇一致。

and 何时需要逗号

连结两个句子,and前面一定加逗号。 I want to go to the party, and I want to see my friends again.

连结两个非句子的项目,像是连结两个名词、两个动词、或是两个子句,都不用加逗号。 I like apples and oranges. I want to go to the party because I miss my friends and because I am free tonight. 但是连结的项目如果比较长的时候,为了句型清楚,连结两个项目也可以加逗号。 I want to go to the party because I miss my friends, and because I am free tonight. 注意 and前面加逗号。

连结三个或三个以上非句子的项目,除了最后一个项目之前,都需要加逗号,最后一个项目则可加也可不加。 I like apples, oranges, and pears. = I like apples, oranges and pears.

英文文章分段方式

分段方式有两种,请二选一,不要综合使用。

一种是段落之中没有空一行,每一段缩排,中文的缩排是两个中文字的空间,英文的缩排则是五个英文字母的空间。英文文章缩排的时候不要只用两个英文字母的空间。

第二种是段落不缩排,但是段落中空一行。

如何分段全篇要一致,不要一段用一种方法,下一段改另一种方法。

缩排缩多大的距离需要固定,不要一段是缩五个英文字母的距离,下一段却是缩四个英文字母的距离。

空行的时候那一行空间有多大也要固定。有时WORD会因为行距调整的关系,同样是空一行,跟上下行的距离会不一样。

degree / level 的用法

to a degree / to a level 意思为「到某一种程度」或是「就某种程度上来说」,比如说:I am jealous of my beautiful friend to a certain degree. The essay makes sense to a degree. To some degree, I can agree with you.

a degree / level of N. 意思为「N. 的程度」或是「N. 有一定的程度」,比如说:My teacher gave me a degree of flexibility in deciding my research topic. 我的老师给我某程度的弹性,让我自行决定我的研究主题。 The dolphin demonstrates a degree of intelligence. 海豚展现出某种程度上的智能。 When he saw that his daughter was injured, he lost all degree of objectivity. 当他看见他女儿受伤了,他失去了所有程度的客观性 (他失去所有客观性)。

at least 的用法

at least 放的位置,会影响语意。

They should at least donate 5 dollars.

at least 是修饰 donate,他们应该「至少捐」五块钱。

They should donate at least 5 dollars.

at least 是修饰 5 dollars,他们应该损出「至少五块钱」。

already / often / sometimes / never 等副词的位置

如果有两个动词,副词通常夹在中间,像是 I have already eaten. I have never been to America. I would still like to go to the party. Your computer is already connected to the Internet.

如果只有一个动词,副词放那边弹性比较大,像是 I finished my homework already. I already finished my homework. I already have two children. I have two children already.

among / between 的用法

国高中英文是说 between two things / among three or more things,其实不是这样分的。 Among 的确是一定用于三个项目或三个项目以上,但 between 可用于两个项目,也可以用于三个项目或以上。

between 之后通常是接独立的项目,这几个项目通常有单独标出,像是There was a conversation between John, Jason, and Annie. 如果项目没有单独标出,则用among,像是There was a conversation among three people.

A treaty was signed between Brazil and Canada. A treaty was signed among three countries. A treaty was signed between Brazil, Canada, and Mexico.

between 也用于范围的起点跟终点,像是 The study looks at children between the age of 13 and 17. The mountain range is the boundary between Switzerland and Italy.

between 也用于表示差别,像是 What is the difference between American English and British English? I cannot see the difference between the twin brothers.

say that N. + V.

例句:People say that John is a kind man. He said that I should really go to his party.

不要加逗号,不要写 People say that, John is a kind man. 也不要写 People say, that John is a kind man.

That 可以省略,所以可以写 People say John is a kind man. 我通常建议英文学习者不要省略that,句型会比较清楚。

Say 可以用其它类似的动词代替,但是有一些「说」的动词需要受词,有一些则不需要。比如说:He announced that he was going to university. 这一句announced不需要动词,句型跟 say that + N. + V. 一样。但是 He told me that he was going to university. 这一句 told 需要受词,所以一定要加一个受词,不能写 He told that he was going to university.

most 的用法

most of + 复数名词,意思是很多项目之中的大多数,这是在说明数量上的比例的概念。比如说 Most of the seats are occupied. 座位很多,大部份的座位有人坐了。

most of + 单数名词或不可数名词,意思是一个项目之中的大部份。比如说 Most of the apple is rotten. 意思是苹果只有一颗,大部份烂掉了。 Most of my day was very boring. 某一天,大部份的时间非常的无聊。 Most of the sugar is gone. Sugar是不可数名词,大部份的糖用完了。

most + adj. 是表示形容词的最高级,用法跟 –est一样,不过通常是用在两个音节以上的形容词。比如说:He is the most important man in the government. He is the tallest man in the group. This is the most exciting day of my life.

most + adv. 是表示副词的最高级。 I will most certainly help you. Most importantly, you need to start exercising now.

price high/low vs. item expensive/cheap

中文是讲「某东西很便宜」,也可以说「价格很便宜」,英文中可以说The necklace is expensive. ,但是要说The necklace's price is high. 虽然说一般口说英文可能会出现the necklace's price is expensive 的说法,这不是正确的英文。

therefore的用法

He was very late for school, and therefore, the teacher was very angry. 注意这一句其实是两句话。第一句的主词是he,动词是was。第二句的主词是the teacher,动词是was。两个句子用and连结,and前面要有逗号。 Therefore之后要有逗号。

以上这一句也可以写为:He was very late for school. Therefore, the teacher was very angry.

或是 He was very late for school; therefore, the teacher was very angry. 注意这三句都是连结两个句子,所以therefore之后一定要加逗号。

如果therefore不是连结两个句子,则可以不加逗号。比如说:He got up late and therefore was late for school. 这里and是连结两个动词 got 以及 was。 Therefore之后可加,也可不加逗号。所以这一句写 He got up late and therefore, was late for school. 也是正确的。

He was the king and therefore cared much about his people. 这一句and是连结两个动词 was 以及cared。这一句要写 He was the king and therefore, cared much about his people. 也是可以。

Therefore加不加逗号有时非常的case by case。我通常是建议学生这样分比较好记:如果therefore之后是一个句子(意思是有主词有动词),therefore之后一定要有逗号。如果therefore之后不是一个句子,则加不加逗号都没关系。

不能单独使用therefore连结两个句子。比如说:He was a king, therefore he cared about his people. 这一句一定要改为:He was a king, and therefore he cared about his people. 或是He was a king. Therefore, he cared about his people.注意标点符号以及大小写。

Not only … but also 的用法

Not only A but also B,其中A 跟B一定要对等,意思就是要不然是连结两个句子,要不然连结两个词性一样的东西。

连结句子:Not only did he give the beggar money, but he also took the beggar home. 注意not only 那一句需要倒装,所以句型是 not only + V. + N., but N. also + V.

but also中的also可以省略,但是but不可以省略。

连结两个名词:He gave me not only food but also shelter. = He gave me not only A but also B.

连结两个动词:He not only gave me food but also provided me with shelter. = He not only did this but also did that.

not only 放在A前面,所以He gave me not only food but also shelter. 中的not only是放在food 前面。 He not only gave me food but also provided me with shelter. 中的not only 是放在 gave的前面。

连结两个子句:I chose to go to the party not only because I was done with my work but also because I wanted to see my friends. = I chose to go to the party not only because A but also because B.

使役动词 have/make/let/help + N. + VR

使役动词加原型动词,只有help比较特别,可以加原型动词,也可以加 to V

例句:What would you have me do? My mother made me do the dishes. Please let me go to the party. I helped her finish her homework. I helped her to finish her homework.

中文句子「修读进阶课程,使我的能力提升」,这个句子常常会被翻成:Taking advanced courses makes me improve my ability. 文法上是正确的,但是语气上有强迫的意味,意思为「强迫我一定得让能力提升」。这一类意思的make,可改为let,或是allow someone to do something。 Let有「允许」的意思,通常是别人「允许你做某件事」。 allow则为 「提供机会」或是「我有机会」的意思。这一句用allow改写会最恰当。 Taking advanced courses lets me improve my ability. Taking advanced courses allows me to improve my ability.

so / so that 的用法

so 是指因此,so that是指目的。

I did my homework, so I was free for the rest of the evening. 我写完作业了,因此我剩下来的晚上时段可以做别的事。注意标点符号,so是接一个完整的句子,主词是I ,动词是was,so前面要加逗号。

so子句一定会搭配一个主要的句子,上面这个例子中I did my homework是主要句子。不能单写So I was free for the rest of the evening. 如果要分开两句写的话,可以写:I did my homework. Therefore, I was free for the rest of the evening. 非正式英文的确会有用so开头的句子,没有主要句子,但是这不是正式英文写作,建议同学不要这样使用。

I did my homework so that I could be free for the rest of the evening. 我写作业,为了剩下来的晚上时段可以做别的事。注意 so that 直接接名词跟动词,前面没有逗号。

because 的用法

Because 不能单独成立一个句子,一定会搭配一个主要句子。

He is angry because I broke his window. 主要句子中的主词是he,动词是is,because子句中的主词是I,动词是broke。注意because前不要加逗号。

以上这一句也可以写为 Because I broke his window, he is angry. 注意because子句如果写在前面,结束的地方要加逗号。

while 的用法

While可以当when使用,也可以当对等的观念的开始。

While/when he was taking a bath, I finished my homework. 这里while是when的意思,意思是当他在洗澡的时候,那个时候,我写完我的作业了。注意while子句不能单独成立一个句子,一定要搭配一个主要句子,这里为I finished my homework。主要句子开始之前,一定要有逗号。

以上这一句while/when子句可以用 while + N. + V. 的句型,也可以用分词构句,用Ving。比如说:While taking a bath, I finished my homework. 如果是被动的话,Ving的部份还是得保留,比如说:While the dog was washed, the dog kept on barking. = While being washed, the dog kept on barking.

上一句也可以改为:I finished my homework while he was taking a bath. 如果while放在后面,中间不加逗号。

While的另一个意思是介绍对等的概念。 While my friends like watching TV, I really don’t like watching TV.

上一句如果while放后面,需要加逗号:I really don’t like watching TV, while my friends like watching TV.

but / however的用法

but 跟 and 一样,不能用来开始一个英文句子。非正式英文文章之中会有这样的用法,但正式英文中不会这样使用,建议同学不要这样用。

He really did not want to go to the party. But he went anyway. 应改为: He really did not want to go to the party, but he went anyway. 注意but是连结两个句子,but前面要加逗号。另一个写法为:He really did not want to go to the party. However, he went anyway. 注意大小写,以及标点符号的使用方式。

如果but是连结两个句子,一定要有逗号。如果是连结两个非句子的项目,逗号可加可不加。 He did not seem angry but sang a song. = He did not seem angry, but sang a song.

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