Dueduedue官方博客
扫描关注Dueduedue官方博客

扫描添加微信客服

Essay代写:段落的结构该怎么写?

Dueduedue官方博客2018-05-02essay代写 566 0A+A-

从段落的结构开始

段落(Paragraph)由阐述同一主题紧密相关的若干句子组成,是一则语意完整、和谐统一的语篇,它可长可短,几句、十几句或更多,视所需细节而定。在英语写作中,段落是文章的基本单位。一些主要的写作技巧都体现在一个结构合理、主题明确、完整统一的段落中。因此,学习写作应先从段落开始。

一般说来,一个段落由三部分组成:主题句、扩展句和结论句。主题句提出论述的主题,扩展句利用必要的细节对主题加以论证说明,结论句总结全文,在论证的基础上得出结论。这三者是段落的必要成分,它们相辅相成,构成一个完整的段落。有些段落还有过渡句,它起到段与段之间的顺利过渡。

Life in the 21st Century

1Life in the 21st century will be very interesting. 2 Perhaps we can go on a holiday to the moon, and some scientists may live under the sea. 3 Maybe we will have video telephones in every home.4 When we talk on the phone, we』ll be able to see the person at the other end of the line. 5 Perhaps we will have a computer in every classroom.6 It would be able to help us do a lot of things such as solving difficult problems, reviewing our lessons , and doing our homework. 7 Perhaps some children won』t need to go to school every day because there will be more educational programs on radio and television. 8 Maybe at that time every family will have a robot and it can do many kinds of housework for us. 9 Then what will we do with our extra time? 十I think we may have more time to study and learn how to use and control these machines. Well, let』s look at what wonderful life we will enjoy in the 21st century.

在这一段中,1主题句,阐述段落的中心思想;2,3,4,5,6,7,8,十为扩展句,列举事例来丰富和阐明中心思想;为结论句,与主题相呼应,概括该段落的真正含义;9为过渡句。

从上面例子我们可以了解段落的结构。要写好描述清楚、发挥充分、结构严谨的段落要注意以下几点:

(1)要有话可说;

(2)写一件事,讲清该事的实质;

(3)用具体细节支持你的看法;

(4)按逻辑顺序安排句子;

(5)把思想紧凑地贯穿起来;

(6)要归纳、概括你的主题;

(7)段落长短要恰当。

通常对一个段落的组织提出两个要求:单一性和连贯性。一个段落应该只说明一个问题,或一个问题的某一方面;应该只叙述一件事情,或一件事情的某一个阶段。也就是说,它只能有一个意思和重点。一段中的各句要前后衔接,条理清楚,合乎逻辑,使读者很容易抓住它的意思。

一、段落的主题句

主题句(Topic sentence)概括段落的主要内容,交待下文欲加以说明、解释、论证的观点,限制着主题在段落中讨论的范围和文章发展的模式,是整个段落的纲领。主题句的好坏,直接关系到段落的成功与否。

(一)主题句的位置

1.主题句一般位于段首,这符合英语民族的思维特点。开篇开门见山提出主题,随后辅以细节说明。如:

(1)Smoking is harmful to your health. Experiments show that smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious disease cancer, smoking can also cause other health problems. For example, it gives one a 「smoker』s cough」. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or the terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it?

通过第一句,全段议题已一目了然——吸烟有害健康。

(2)Pollution is one of the greatest problems facing mankind today. Machines produce gases and smoke, and the air becomes dirty. Factory wastes contain chemicals. When these are poured into rivers, the water is polluted. Insecticides(杀虫剂)kill insects, but they also kill birds and animals that feed on the insects. To mankind, pollution causes sickness and even death. Everyone wants to stop pollution, but it is a difficult problem to solve.

上面段落的第一句为主题句,它使读者一开头就明白本段的要点——pollution(污染)。

2.主题句也可置于段落的末尾。

Albert Einstein, one of the world』s greatest scientists, failed in his university entrance examination on his first attempt. William Faulkner, one of America』s famous writers, never finished college because he could not pass his English courses. Sir Winston Churchill, who is considered one of the masters of the English language, was very poor in English during middle school. These few examples show that failure in school does not always predict(预示)failure in life.

上面段落的最后一句是主题句,位于段落的末尾,起到了戏剧性的生动效果,使作者产生一种悬念,引起读者阅读的兴趣,使读者读后产生强烈的印象。

3.主题句有时置于段落的中间。

Karaok(卡拉OK),which was invented by a Japanese, is one of the greatest wonders of modern technology. Needless to say, Karaok is a good way of rest. You can learn a new song easily. It』s also a good way to make your friends happy. Nearly every body has a chance to be a singing star. However, everything has two sides, so does Karaok. It』s noisy to your neighbours. Besides, if you sing badly, they will feel uncomfortable. In fact, you are sure to make a sound pollution.

娴熟的作者有时会把主题句置于段落的中间,使用恰当,显得自然、流畅,也有很好的效果。

(二)主题句的要求

要写好主题句,有两条主要原则:

1.主题句要明确,句中须有一个词、词组或从句让读者一目了然本段落的确切主题,明了本段的重点或作者的观点。例如:This paragraph will talk about birds. 这句作为主题句就表达得不确切。该句太笼统,不包含主题。试比较以下几句,下列几个主题句就确切地阐明了段落的主题:

a. Birds have a great sense of direction.

b. Pet owners prefer certain species of birds.

c. In my opinion, a bird makes a better pet than a cat does.

d. Birds are suffering from air-pollution.

2.主题句要概括,它陈述你要说明的重点和观点,句中必须包含有可扩展主题的词、词组或从句。它应该是你将进一步表明你的态度和看法的概括。同时,主题句有利于控制写作者本人主题的扩展。例如:The young girl studied Chinese History. 该主题句未能概括主题的要点,则不利于下面的扩展。最好增添一个词或一个短语来修改这个句子,以便能顺利地扩展你的主题。例如:

a. The young girl eagerly studied Chinese History.

b. The young girl studied Chinese History under a famous historian.

c. The young girl found three reasons for studying Chinese History.

主题句是一种许诺,如上面例句 c,你得把 three reasons 陈述清楚,要不然会使读者失望的。

(三)写好主题句须做到

1.清楚地陈述主题——写什么?

2.限定主题——免谈阔论。

3.有重点和观点——写作目的。

4.组织好一句完整、确切的句子——良好的开端!

(四)主题句的主要类型

英语段落中的主题句的类型很多,常用的类型可以概括为如下几类:

1.要领式。

总体概括段落的中心思想,这是最常用的方法。

(1)These days experiences, like many other things, are becoming more and more expensive.

(2)I have many hobbies, such as sports, singing, playing the violin and keeping a diary.

2.设疑式。

主要有提问式和争议式两种。

提问式:Should young students learn to do housework?/What is self-control?/Is money everything?

争议式:Is watching television good or bad?/Which is better: To get scores or to get ability?

3.对比式。

用鲜明的对照引出主题,借以取得先声夺人的醒目效果。

In choosing a good husband, different girls have different ideas, one suggests wealth, the next learning, while a third looks for a man who is handsome.

4.引用式。

引用名人语录,作为段落中心思想的基调。

As the saying goes,「Time past cannot be called back.」

5.特写式。

为了使叙述增添戏剧性,可挑选有关引人注目的事实、事件、统计数字,或者当前令人感兴趣的问题,作为段落的主题句。

(1)Last year, only one out of ten American high school graduates had studied a foreign language.

(2)Now as a girl of 20, I am able to understand something of life and at the same time dream.

(3)Father spends most of his time reading in silence.

6.引叙式。

从本人的有关经历谈起。

When I first came to Germany in January 1946, all the cities seemed to be curiously alike.

(五)主题句的拟订

主题句一般由一个主题和一个控制概念构成。主题句不能只是事实的陈述。如:

Christmas is celebrated on December 25.

November 11th is my birthday.

这两句都是事实的陈述,不包含任何须进一步解释的信息,不能激起读者继续读下去的兴趣。如果改为:

I had a terrible Christmas last year.

I had an unforgettable birthday on November 11th this year.

读者会预测,接下去将会介绍圣诞不愉快或生日难忘,从而会继续读下去。

二、段落的扩展句

扩展句(Supporting sentence)的作用是丰富、支持、扩展主题句的内涵。它们是段落的血和肉,使段落丰满匀称。扩展句围绕主题思想而作,阐发、证明、护卫主题。扩展部分的阐明要透彻,证明要充分,护卫要有力,举例有条理,符合思想逻辑。扩展句的表达形式是多种多样的,可以按时间或空间顺序,从整体到局部或从局部到整体的方法进行叙述、描写、说明或议论,也可用比较、对比、比喻、推导、归纳、演绎等手段来展现。扩展句须服从主题表达的需要,不应该涉及与主题无关或关系疏远的内容。请看下面两例:

(1)Zoos are popular with all children. They are able to see all kinds of animals from all countries. In some places in Africa, the animals run about freely without fear of being killed. But in zoos, animals live in cages. Perhaps the favorite place in zoos is the elephant cage. There the elephants interest the children by spraying themselves with their trunk and doing various tricks. The children are especially delighted when an elephant takes bananas from them with its trunk. Some people say that it is cruel to force animals to play tricks before crowds of people.

该段中的 In some places in Africa, the animals run about freely without fear of being killed. 和 But in zoos, animals live in cages. 两句与主题无关,应删除。

(2)Last summer holiday is the worst I had ever had. It rained every day. Our car broke down three times, and we spent all our money trying to get it fixed. We could not afford a place to stay, so we had to sleep in the car. Fortunately, we came across an old friend later, who offered us his house. Then when we finally gave up and tried to walk home, we were arrested.

可以看出 「Fortunately, we came across an old friend later, who offered us his house.」一句与主题不符,应删掉。

(一)扩展句的要求

通常对扩展句的要求有两个:单一性和连贯性。

一个段落只说明一个问题、讲述一件事,扩展句必须紧紧地围绕着主题句,不偏离中心思想,这就是单一性的要求。

1 Millions of years ago, Australia was connected to Asia by a land bridge. 2 Then an earthquake caused the land bridge to break. 3 The sea rushed in, and Australia became an island. 4 Later, this island became a British colony. 5 Many animals that once went back and forth across the land bridge stayed in Australia. 6 The gentle kangaroos(袋鼠)were among them. 7 Though fierce beasts killed them off elsewhere, they were able to continue to live in Australia.

这一段讲的是远古时期的澳洲,当时连人类都没有,当然不必说它后来沦为英国的殖民地之事了,因此句4「Later, this island became a British colony.」这一句违背了单一性的原则,应删除。

段落中的各扩展句要前后衔接、条理清楚、合乎逻辑,使读者很容易抓住段落的中心思想,这就是连贯性的要求。

1 When Professor Wang returned to the college this autumn, we noticed several changes in his appearance. 2 Instead of shoes he wore leather sandals(便鞋).3 His hair was combed forward over his forehead. 4 His coats were brighter in colour than they used to be. 5 On his upper lip grew a small moustache(胡子). 6 He had started wearing heavy eyeglasses with black frames. 7 His trouser legs were narrower than they had been last year. 8 Although he always wore dark necktie last year , now he wore striped(条纹的)bow ties(蝴蝶结)every day.

这一段落描述的是王教授今年秋天回到大学时的外表变化,叙述顺序显得忽上忽下,条理紊乱,难以给读者留下清晰的印象。如果从上面的头发开始,然后是眼镜、胡子、外衣、领带、裤子到鞋子的画像,读者自然容易接受,印象也深刻。所以上面段落的句子的次序应改为 1—3—6—5—4—8—7—2 较佳。

(二)扩展句的主要文体和形式

扩展句根据表达的内容,运用不同的文体,采用不同的写作形式。文体大致可分为记叙、描写、说明和议论四种;形式可分成叙述法、顺序法、说理法、解说法、分类法、定义法、比较和对照法、归类法、驳论法等。不管运用何种文体和手法,目的是一致的,都是为了把要写的内容交代清楚,便于读者理解。

In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt took his family sailing one day and he fell into the cold water. The next day, a forest fire broke out. Franklin and his children helped to fight the forest fire and put it out. It was hard and tiring work . After the fire was out, Franklin was sick. After that, he could not move his legs. The doctor said he could never walk again. Many people would have give up then. Franklin Roosevelt did not give up. He began to work to get well again. Even though he could not get out of bed, he did exercises, and his shoulders and arms grew very strong. At last the doctors let him out of bed, but he had to wear heavy metal braces(支撑架)on his legs. Then he went to Warm Spring, Georgia. He swam in the warm water there. Even though it was painful to move his legs, he kept on swimming and exercising them. He grew better until he could leave the braces off. He could walk with only a stick to help him. 「The only thing we have to fear is fear itself,」 President Roosevel t told people.

这一段叙述罗斯福总统患病的原因及他坚毅地战胜疾病的过程。交代明白,头绪清楚,前后连贯,运用他的名言作为本段的主题。

How to learn English well? First, we should keep on using English if we want to learn it well. If we often do listening, speaking, reading and writing, we will improve our ability to use the language greatly. Second, grammar is important . It helps us understand and use English freely. But grammar is not everything. It is not a good way to spend most of our time on grammar. We are learning English, we are not learning about English. Last, at the beginning of our English study, we should pay more attention to listening and speaking. Try to have good intonation and pronunciation. Listening and speaking are closely connected with reading and writing. You cannot read and write well unless you are good at listening and speaking. If you insist on practising using English, you will find it not a hard job to learn English well.

这一段陈述的是如何学好英语。第一句明白地说明本段落的主题,然后从三个方面展开,具体说明学好英语的方法。表述清楚,简洁明了,有的放矢。

三、段落的结论句

结论句(Concluding sentence)也称总结句,它标志着段落的结束,自然应位于一段的结尾。结论句可用来重述主题、提供问题的解决方式,对未来进行预测,提出问题让读者思考,或对全段内容加以概述。结论之前常会出现 In short, In a word, Therefore等词语。但并非所有的段落都需要结论句,有的也可采用自然结束的方式。如:

1 My brother is crazy because he seems to spend every cent he has on skiing. Last summer he bought the most expensive skis and poles that he could find. A few weeks later, he just bought a pair of custom-made ski boots. Then he found that his jacket and pants, which were only one season old, weren』t good enough, and replaced them with the best new jacket and pants he could find. Every weekend last winter, he traveled to a different ski resort to try out the slopes. He even went to Alaska for two weeks in the spring. Next year he says he』s going to Switzerland for a month. My brother is nothing but a skiing nut.

该段采用的是以新的措辞重述中心思想。 「My bother is nothing but a skiing nut.」是对该段主题的再次陈述。

2 Some children do not work hard in the school, and so do not achieve as much as they can. Why does this happen? One reason may be a fear of failure. Children are expected to achieve too much. They are afraid they may not succeed, so they do less.Another cause for failure may be inner conflict. Children may be worried about certain tests at home. As a result, they devoted less attention to their studies. Poor teaching is another possible cause. Sometimes the teacher fails to make the subjects interesting. This can cause children to become bored and not work hard. As we see, the reasons are varied and complex. Teachers and parents should try to understand these children before they scold them for not working hard.

该段采用的是提出建议的结论方式。

3 I had a very unlucky day yesterday. Everything went wrong. In the morning my alarm clock didn』t ring so I woke up one hour late. I was in such a hurry that I burned my hand when I was making breakfast. Then I ran out of the house to catch the 8︰30 bus, but of course I missed it. I was very unhappy because my teacher gets angry if anyone is late for class. I ran three miles to the school only to discover that it was Sunday .

该段采用的是自然结尾的方式。

写结论句可采用的手法很多,可以说写主题句的各种手法写结论句时都能用,其精神也一样:注意独创,避免平淡。结论句在注意总结与呼应主题句的基础上,用一个短短的感叹句、问句、一句话结论、一个比喻、一句挑战性的话或一句名言将全段「拔高」一下,效果会更好。

参阅下面主题句与结论句呼应的例子:

1.(主题句: Only a mother』s love is selfless love.)

结尾句 What great love this is!

2.(主题句: Life is limited, but knowledge is boundless.)

结尾句 How important it is to read good books!

3.(主题句: Books are full of knowledge and wisdom.)

结尾句 Why shouldn』t we read more books to search more and use them to develop our splendid future?

4.(主题句: From Monday to Friday we go to school, and we have to do so on Saturday and Sunday. Our rights of enjoying our weekends have been taken away by those who wish us to do well in our lessons.)

结尾句: In short, for young people, not only are we eager for knowledge but also we are thirsty for colourful lives. Let』s become the real masters of weekends.

5.(主题句: When I was a little girl, I lived with my grandparents in a faraway village.)

结尾句: Time was gone with the wind. But my childhood is like amber(琥珀), glittering in my life.

6.(主题句: Confucius(孔子)was one of the greatest sages(贤人)and ethical philosophers(伦理哲学家)in China.)

结尾句: No other reformer has held such influence over a great part of humanity for so long a period.

7.(主题句: Success comes with hard work.)

结尾句 So, as Thomas Edison once said, genius is one percent inspiration(灵感)and ninety-nine percent perspiration(辛劳).

从以上的例子,我们可以清楚地看出主题句和结论句的关系,结论句在意思上和主题句保持一致,与主题句紧密呼应,但又不是简单的重复。例1和例2 运用感叹句,例3 运用问句,例4 运用一句总结,例5 则运用一个比喻,例6 运用概括,例7 则运用了一句名言,它们都起到强化主题思想的作用,给读者留下了较深的印象。

结论句并非必不可少,但它能起到以下的作用:

(1) 表示段落的结束。

(2)总结要点,与主题句相呼应。

(3)供读者就本段落的主要内容和见解有一个深刻的印象或进行思考。

第二节 段落的写作要求

一、段落的统一性

段落的统一性是段落写作的最基本要求。一个段落只能有一个主题,其它所有的事实、例子、证据都应服务于同一个主题。所有与主题不相关的细节都应删掉。统一性有助于作者清楚有效地表达自己的观点。通过有机地将主题密切相关的扩展句编排在一起,可使文章主题更明确、中心更突出。如:

1 Some people believe wealth can not bring them happiness. For example, when one gets a fortune, the family members will come from different parts of the country and try to share the wealth with him. And afterwards, they will quarrel with one another, trying to share more. And sometimes even appear blood fight and killing. What a terrible result!

2 TV plays an important part in our daily life nowadays. It provides us news at home and abroad and it brings us much pleasure. We can spend our spare time happily with TV. For example, cartoons are great fun to children. Children can also learn a lot from TV programs.

3 TV sometimes has a bad effect on students. First, watching TV too much does great harm to their health, especially to their eyes. Second, if children spend too much time on TV, they will certainly spend less time in reading. Besides, some programs are not suitable for children. They will perhaps lead children to the wrong way.

4 Sign language is a way of talking by using signs. Indians use sign language when they met strangers. In this way, they could find out whether the stranger was a friend or an enemy. In Indian sign language, signs are made with the hands . One sign meant 「man」. Another meant「horse」. To tell the time of a day when something happened, an Indian pointed to the sky. He showed where the sun had been at the time.

上列各段中,所有的扩展细节都围绕着主题句展开,段落的统一性遭到保持。再看下列两段:

1 Air pollution is a very serious problem. There are too many vehicles that send out poisonous gases to pollute the air. There are also a great number of shops and boats that leak oil to pollute the harbor and kill sea lives. Laziness is another bad point. People here seem to depend too much on machinery to do their work.

显然段落中前后细节不是说明同一问题。前三句介绍了空气污染的问题,而后两句则说明人的懒惰,致使段落的统一性得到破坏。

2 Traffic accidents have increased in our city recently. What are the main causes? One cause for these accidents is that there are too many buses and trucks. Besides, some drivers pay no attention to traffic rules. They drive after drinking, they talk with passengers while driving, and they rush through crossroads paying no attention to the traffic lights. Now that the students』vacation is coming, a lot of them will go out. At the same time, the Spring Festival is coming soon. So there will be traffic jams in the street. We must do something to avoid more traffic accidents in our city.

该段的主题句说明,文章介绍的应是交通事故是如何增加的。但在段落后半部分,作者转而描写交通拥挤,所提供的材料不能说明主题,破坏了段落的统一性。

二、段落的连贯性

段落的连贯性指段落中各句前后衔接合理、条理清楚、通顺连贯。它讲究语言和逻辑上的完整。取得连贯的方式很多,如:

(1)按照逻辑组织材料,如递增、递减、时间顺序、空间顺序、比较、列举、归纳、演绎等。

(2)正确运用转承语。

(3)利用代词、同义词等,或重复关键词。

尤为重要的是:转承语所起的承转衔接的作用,说明上下文和前后句两个意思之间的关系,帮助读者跟上作者的思路,对于提高段落的连贯性是必不可少的。请读下面一段短文:

Instant noodles is a kind of good food for home and travelling. It tastes good, (and) is easy to take because it doesn』t need cooking. (So) it can save us a lot of time especially when we are busy or on travels. (Now) let me tell you how to have it. (First) put noodles into a bowl, (and) soup stock as well. (Second), pour in 500cc boiling water. The water should be over the noodles. ( Then)cover the bowl and keep the noodles covered for three minutes. (Now), the noodles are ready to be taken. Please have a try for yourself.

通过括号部分转承语的使用,段落的逻辑、语意联系、前因后果变得十分明了,使整个段落连贯统一。

英语中转承语比较多,一般常用的有:

1 附加、递进: also, and, and, then, in addition, furthermore, moreover

2 时间: now, then, before, after, later, soon, next, meanwhile, finally, eventually

3 比较: like, unlike, similarly, just like, just as, likewise, in the same way

4 对照: but, still, however, while, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, despite, in spite of

5 因果: because, since, so, consequently, hence, as a result, therefore, thus, because of this

6 目的: for this purpose, so that, in order that, so as to, in order to

7 解释: for example, for instance,

8 总结: in summary, in conclusion, in short, in brief, that is

9 让步: although, though, even though, no matter wh-

三、段落的简洁性

一个段落的长度没有具体的限制,主要取决于段落主题表达的需要。有的只需简短的几句,有的则需要更多的细节支持。但无论哪种情况,一个段落的写作必须遵循简洁的原则,避免赘言和与主题无关的语言成分。如:

If you are like me, and you really believe that children』s living is important, and that all school experiences should be happy, then go and open your children』s fifth or sixth or seventh or eighth grade English textbook, have a look at it and cry.

该段只用了44个单词就巧妙表达了一个完整的思想:如果你和我一样,就去看看孩子的课本,凝视这些课本,你就哭吧:孩子负担太重了。

下一段同样不长,却不够简洁。重复的「He enjoyed」,以及「took pleasure」的出现使语言显得累赘,拖拉。

Charles was not a very clever boy. He was good at doing the things that interested him. He enjoyed collecting bird』s eggs. He enjoyed fishing. He enjoyed shooting and he enjoyed long walks with his dogs. He also took pleasure in carrying out experiments, and took pleasure in making「all the gases」. His friends called him 「Gas」.

第三节 段落的组织手段

段落组织的好坏一般有三条标准,即好的思想内容、好的层次安排和好的文字运用。一般认为:好的思想内容指令人感到真实可信、生动有趣、有深度;好的层次安排指的是写作内容统一,组织合乎逻辑,前后连贯,句与句互相接应;好的文字运用则指所用的语言正确、合乎习惯并能达意,具有一定文采当然更佳。同时,书写要端正,要符合规范。

组织段落的一般步骤:

在动笔之前,花5~10分钟把自己的思路梳理一下,围绕主题思考可能用到的素材。

筛选出最重要的素材,把与主题关系不大的素材坚决剔除,最好立个提纲,这将有利于动笔写作。

决定一个和主题发展的素材合适的陈述手段,即本节和以后几节要讨论的内容。

段落的组织手段有按时间、空间、结构、逻辑、过程的次序进行表达的顺序手法,也可以运用举例、比较和对照、下定义、归纳、因果、推理、驳论等表达手法。不管运用何种手法,段落必须服从表达主题的需要,通过摆事实、讲道理、举例子和提供有关数据信息的方法,透彻阐述,清晰地向读者展现你所叙述的一件事、一个人,解释的一个现象或一个道理,讲解的一个过程或表达的一种看法或信念等。

〔例1〕

Ladies and gentlemen,

(1)I』m very glad to welcome you all to our factory.(2)First of all, I wish to say a few words about our factory.(3)It was set up in October, 1986.(4)We spent only fourteen months in finishing building our factory.(5)There are five workshops in our factory and 1250 workers here. most of whom are young people.(6)More than 400 workers have had some college education and more than 800 workers have had middle school education.(7)Our factory mainly produces fertilizers(肥料).(8)In the past few years our factory has advanced rapidly.(9)Now we have raised our output of fertilizers to more than 400 thousand tons a year .(10)The total output value of our factory added up to 100 million yuan last year.

That』s all. Thank you.

(1)导入 (2)主题句 (3)事实 (4)举例 (5)事实 (6)事实举例 (7)事实 (8)事实 (9)事实 (10)结尾句

上文是一则某工厂介绍,它用了具体的材料作事实,详细的数据举例,避免了空洞的形容词和大量的个人观点和感情流露。本段用事实(数据、时间、结果等)来组织写作的手段,使听者很容易地了解了工厂。

〔例2〕

(1)Why is the Blue-sky School so popular in our city?(2)The school is well-known for its long history.(3)Its campus is well arranged with trees and flowers here and there, and also with a long passage from the teaching building to the dormitory through the dining hall.(4)The school is well equipped.(5)The teaching buildings, the experiment labs and the language labs, the computer rooms, the library as well as the gymnasium are better than any other schools.(6)But the most important reason is the excellent teachers and teaching results.(7)Most teachers in this school are rich both in knowledge and in experience.(8)They have patience and deep love for the students.(9)As a result, most of its graduates are excellent not only in intelligence but in morality as well, among whom some are now state or city leaders, managers, engineers, writers, teachers, doctors and model workers.(10 )What a good school!

(1)主题句 (2)~(5)理由一(环境) (6)~(8)理由二(师资) (9)理由三(结果) (10)结尾句

这一段落阐述了「蓝天学校」为什么全市有名的原因,用了三方面具体的理由来支持主题,内容丰富,使人信服。

〔例3〕

(1)A snake is a strange animal.(2)It walks on its ribs(肋骨)and it smells with its tongue.(3)Since its teeth are sharp like needles and not good for chewing, it swallow its food whole. (4)The snake』s jaws can stretch a great deal.(5)Its body, too, can stretch to several times as its normal size.(6)So even a small snake can easily swallow a mouse whole, and a snake just an inch across can gulp(吞)down a young bird three inches across.(7)Such a large meal might last the snake for months.(8)In fact, some snakes have been known to go without eating for as long as two years.

(1)主题句(2)~(7)例子(3)理由和结果(6)结果(8)结尾句

本段描述了蛇——一种奇怪的动物,列举了具体的例子,其中夹叙了理由,说明其结果。由此可见一个段落里往往不仅仅用一种手段,一种表达形式。

一、时间顺序手法

时间顺序手法是按事件发生的先后顺序组成段或篇的表达手法,即先发生的事情先写,后发生的事情后写。这种表达手法常用于讲故事、叙述经历、介绍历史事件、解释事物发展的过程、说明科学的程序、指导从事某项活动或使用某物品等。

Lunar New Year(阴历新年)is quite a great event for the Chinese. Long before it arrives, children look forward to it with great eagerness. Already the markets and stores are beginning to fill up with crowds of people, as according to the custom , all the stores and businesses are usually closed for three to five days during the holidays. Several days before the new year, farmers kill pigs, sheep, cocks and hens, and city-dwellers buy meat, fish and vegetables. Houses are cleaned, couplets(对联)are pasted on the doors. Colourful lanterns are hung at the gates. On the eve of the year, each family has its members gather together to eat a family reunion dinner. After the meal they watch a special program on TV until the clock strikes twelve. Then every family set off long strings of small firecrackers to welcome the new year. On the first day of the new year, almost everyone is dressed in his or her best. When people meet on the streets, they say to each other 「Happy New Year」. Fri ends and relatives pay new year calls and give presents among themselves. Children enjoy themselves in games.

上文描述了阴历新年前后的欢乐情景,从long before it(the lunar New Year)arrives开始,然后是several days before the new year, 接着on the eve of the new year, 其中又分the meal 前后的情景,最后是on the first day of the new year。文中按照时间顺序描述,给读者理解内容勾画出了一幅清晰生动的画面,使读者留下深刻的印象。

写好时间顺序的段落同样首先要写好主题句,然后按事情发生的顺序或步骤的先后进行组织表达,所以要学会选用合适的表示时间先后的过渡词,使句与句之间有机地联系起来,过渡词就如同润滑剂,起到了承上启下的作用,使表达先后顺序明朗、表达流畅、自然。

在时间顺序表达手法中,经常使用的时间过渡词和词组有:now, then, before, after, afterwards, earlier, later,at first, at once, at the beginning, at the moment, at the same time, immediately, soon, next, meanwhile, gradually, suddenly, finally, recently以及表示具体的时间状语短语,例如:in January, on Monday, on the morning of, in 1996, in spring, in a few days, in the past five years, one morning, the day before yesterday 等。

二、空间顺序手法

空间顺序手法是按照事物或人物的活动及所处的空间位置进行排列有序的组织和表达的手法。如从左到右,从顶端到底部,由近及远等各种自然的顺序。这种表达方法常用于写人、物和景,大到一个国家、一个民族、一座山、一个湖、一大洋、一艘轮船、一架飞机等,小到一幢房子、一个院子、一个房间、一件物品、一张脸等。

这种表达手法可分为静态描写和动态描写。其目的是让读者易于正确地理解所表达的内容。按所表达的人或物互相之间的空间关系,进行有序地安排、组织和描写。一旦确定了顺序的形式,空间中的所有人或事物都应遵循这一形式,中途不能随意停止和改变。

In the western suburbs of the city of Jinan, there stands a small village. That is my native place. My native place is full of beauty. A green hill is behind it, and a wide field in front. Around the village, there is a little stream in which fish is swimming to and fro. The most populous part of the village is in the west. There are many stone houses standing among the green trees. In the east of the village there is a temple, which has been used for a primary school. If one stands on the hill, he is sure to see a perfect view of the village.

上文描述的是自己的家乡,作者从村后村前和村庄周围开始叙述,继而从村西到村东的描述,给读者展现了一幅清晰而美丽的家乡图画。文中使用了许多位置过渡词和词语,使全文流畅通顺。

从上面短文中我们看到要写一个精确清晰的描述空间方位和位置的段落应该具备:

(1)好的主题句;

(2)空间、位置的清晰、有序的组织;

(3)合适的表示空间和位置的过渡词和词语。

表示空间和位置的常用过渡词语有:

near, near to, close to, far, far from, in front of, beyond, above, to the right/left, in/to the east of, around, surrounding, on the side, on the other side, inside, outside , alongside, over, throughout, towards, in the middle, in the centre, at the top, at the foot, at the bottom, at the edge, at the end of, across, on the opposite of, leading to等。

三、比较对照手法

比较对照手法是将两个或更多的相似相近的人或事物,通过比较和对照说明其差异及相似的写作手法,其目的是揭示该事物和人物的特点或特征。严格地说,比较是指出同种类型的两人(或更多人)或两物(或更多物)的相同点,而对照则指出它们的不同点。然而,在实际表达时,比较和对照往往同时运用。

对事物和人物作比较对照时要注意的是:只能就同类的人或物进行比较,比如把当今中国和旧中国比较,而不能与计算机比较。事物之间在逻辑上很难搭配的比较称之为比拟,如人生和河流,两者之间明显不同,只是比拟其相似性。

Today, women』s life is much better than ever before. In the past women couldn』t get a job. They could only stay at home to take care of babies. But now women can get jobs easily and they can do any work as men do. In cities, all girls can go to school, and even in the countryside many girls can go to school, too.

Now, people cherish girls as much as boys. They say girls and boys are the same. In their homes, husbands also do housework.

People often say, 「Women hold up half of the sky.」In fact, women play a very important role in today』s society.

I believe that one day, there will be a woman president in China.

文章讨论了当今一个热点话题——现代社会妇女的地位。作者运用了新旧社会对比的手法,并且引用许多俗语,使文章严肃而不乏生动。但若能将第一段分段,再具体深刻些或许会更好。

My hometown is quite different from what it used to be. Just a little more than ten years ago my hometown was a small quiet place. The houses were small and mean(简陋的). The streets were for the most part narrow and winding(曲曲弯弯). There were few people in the streets and shops. Now, everything has changed. Looking in every direction from the centre of the town, one sees a long succession of giant, imposing buildings. The streets, whether long or short, are straight, spacious, and well-shaded. Crowds of people can be found here and there, hurrying, noisy, and well-dressed. From a dull little village with clusters of shabby houses in the past, my hometown has now transformed into a big city, cheerful, colourful, bustling and prosperous.

上文的第一句是主题句,说明本段的主意为「家乡今昔之别」,从第二句开始陈述了十年前的家乡旧貌,「小而简陋的房子」、「窄而弯曲的街道」、「街上和店铺里稀少的人们」;而接着展示了今日的景象:「宏伟、壮观的大批楼房」、「宽阔、笔直而整齐的街道」、「忙碌、衣着得体的熙熙攘攘的人群」。通过建筑物、街道和人们的比较对照,展现了今昔家乡的巨大变化。本文是通过陈述旧貌再现新貌的手法。

要写好比较和对照,首先同样要组织好主题句。写扩展句前先要考虑怎样组织好比较和对照,比较和对照是一种逻辑性的序列,思考组织比较和对照的方面,为了突出比较和对照的效果,运用好过渡词同样十分重要。

表示比较对照的常用过渡词有: differ from, equal, contrast with, similarly, however, in the same way, on the other hand, on the contrary, both... and, but, and... too, one ... the other, while, whereas, just like, likewise, in spite of, even though, instead 等。

Dueduedue服务-【essay代写】【英语论文代写】全球在线写作中心

文章关键词
essay代写微信
essay代写推荐
essay代写便宜
essay代写优惠
essay代写安全
essay代写靠谱
essay代写可信
essay能否代写
essay能不能代写
发表评论