Life in the 21st Century
１Life in the 21st century will be very interesting. ２ Perhaps we can go on a holiday to the moon, and some scientists may live under the sea. ３ Maybe we will have video telephones in every home.４ When we talk on the phone, we』ll be able to see the person at the other end of the line. ５ Perhaps we will have a computer in every classroom.６ It would be able to help us do a lot of things such as solving difficult problems, reviewing our lessons , and doing our homework. ７ Perhaps some children won』t need to go to school every day because there will be more educational programs on radio and television. ８ Maybe at that time every family will have a robot and it can do many kinds of housework for us. ９ Then what will we do with our extra time? 十I think we may have more time to study and learn how to use and control these machines. Well, let』s look at what wonderful life we will enjoy in the 21st century.
(1)Smoking is harmful to your health. Experiments show that smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious disease cancer, smoking can also cause other health problems. For example, it gives one a 「smoker』s cough」. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or the terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it?
(2)Pollution is one of the greatest problems facing mankind today. Machines produce gases and smoke, and the air becomes dirty. Factory wastes contain chemicals. When these are poured into rivers, the water is polluted. Insecticides(杀虫剂)kill insects, but they also kill birds and animals that feed on the insects. To mankind, pollution causes sickness and even death. Everyone wants to stop pollution, but it is a difficult problem to solve.
Albert Einstein, one of the world』s greatest scientists, failed in his university entrance examination on his first attempt. William Faulkner, one of America』s famous writers, never finished college because he could not pass his English courses. Sir Winston Churchill, who is considered one of the masters of the English language, was very poor in English during middle school. These few examples show that failure in school does not always predict(预示)failure in life.
Karaok(卡拉OK),which was invented by a Japanese, is one of the greatest wonders of modern technology. Needless to say, Karaok is a good way of rest. You can learn a new song easily. It』s also a good way to make your friends happy. Nearly every body has a chance to be a singing star. However, everything has two sides, so does Karaok. It』s noisy to your neighbours. Besides, if you sing badly, they will feel uncomfortable. In fact, you are sure to make a sound pollution.
1.主题句要明确，句中须有一个词、词组或从句让读者一目了然本段落的确切主题，明了本段的重点或作者的观点。例如：This paragraph will talk about birds. 这句作为主题句就表达得不确切。该句太笼统，不包含主题。试比较以下几句，下列几个主题句就确切地阐明了段落的主题：
a. Birds have a great sense of direction.
b. Pet owners prefer certain species of birds.
c. In my opinion, a bird makes a better pet than a cat does.
d. Birds are suffering from air-pollution.
2.主题句要概括，它陈述你要说明的重点和观点，句中必须包含有可扩展主题的词、词组或从句。它应该是你将进一步表明你的态度和看法的概括。同时，主题句有利于控制写作者本人主题的扩展。例如：The young girl studied Chinese History. 该主题句未能概括主题的要点，则不利于下面的扩展。最好增添一个词或一个短语来修改这个句子，以便能顺利地扩展你的主题。例如：
a. The young girl eagerly studied Chinese History.
b. The young girl studied Chinese History under a famous historian.
c. The young girl found three reasons for studying Chinese History.
主题句是一种许诺，如上面例句 c，你得把 three reasons 陈述清楚，要不然会使读者失望的。
(1)These days experiences, like many other things, are becoming more and more expensive.
(2)I have many hobbies, such as sports, singing, playing the violin and keeping a diary.
提问式：Should young students learn to do housework?/What is self-control?/Is money everything?
争议式：Is watching television good or bad?/Which is better: To get scores or to get ability?
In choosing a good husband, different girls have different ideas, one suggests wealth, the next learning, while a third looks for a man who is handsome.
As the saying goes,「Time past cannot be called back.」
(1)Last year, only one out of ten American high school graduates had studied a foreign language.
(2)Now as a girl of 20, I am able to understand something of life and at the same time dream.
(3)Father spends most of his time reading in silence.
When I first came to Germany in January 1946, all the cities seemed to be curiously alike.
Christmas is celebrated on December 25.
November 11th is my birthday.
I had a terrible Christmas last year.
I had an unforgettable birthday on November 11th this year.
（1）Zoos are popular with all children. They are able to see all kinds of animals from all countries. In some places in Africa, the animals run about freely without fear of being killed. But in zoos, animals live in cages. Perhaps the favorite place in zoos is the elephant cage. There the elephants interest the children by spraying themselves with their trunk and doing various tricks. The children are especially delighted when an elephant takes bananas from them with its trunk. Some people say that it is cruel to force animals to play tricks before crowds of people.
该段中的 In some places in Africa, the animals run about freely without fear of being killed. 和 But in zoos, animals live in cages. 两句与主题无关，应删除。
（2）Last summer holiday is the worst I had ever had. It rained every day. Our car broke down three times, and we spent all our money trying to get it fixed. We could not afford a place to stay, so we had to sleep in the car. Fortunately, we came across an old friend later, who offered us his house. Then when we finally gave up and tried to walk home, we were arrested.
可以看出 「Fortunately, we came across an old friend later, who offered us his house.」一句与主题不符，应删掉。
１ Millions of years ago, Australia was connected to Asia by a land bridge. ２ Then an earthquake caused the land bridge to break. ３ The sea rushed in, and Australia became an island. ４ Later, this island became a British colony. ５ Many animals that once went back and forth across the land bridge stayed in Australia. ６ The gentle kangaroos(袋鼠)were among them. ７ Though fierce beasts killed them off elsewhere, they were able to continue to live in Australia.
这一段讲的是远古时期的澳洲，当时连人类都没有，当然不必说它后来沦为英国的殖民地之事了，因此句４「Later, this island became a British colony.」这一句违背了单一性的原则，应删除。
１ When Professor Wang returned to the college this autumn, we noticed several changes in his appearance. ２ Instead of shoes he wore leather sandals(便鞋).３ His hair was combed forward over his forehead. ４ His coats were brighter in colour than they used to be. ５ On his upper lip grew a small moustache(胡子). ６ He had started wearing heavy eyeglasses with black frames. ７ His trouser legs were narrower than they had been last year. ８ Although he always wore dark necktie last year , now he wore striped(条纹的)bow ties(蝴蝶结)every day.
这一段落描述的是王教授今年秋天回到大学时的外表变化，叙述顺序显得忽上忽下，条理紊乱，难以给读者留下清晰的印象。如果从上面的头发开始，然后是眼镜、胡子、外衣、领带、裤子到鞋子的画像，读者自然容易接受，印象也深刻。所以上面段落的句子的次序应改为 １—３—６—５—４—８—７—２ 较佳。
In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt took his family sailing one day and he fell into the cold water. The next day, a forest fire broke out. Franklin and his children helped to fight the forest fire and put it out. It was hard and tiring work . After the fire was out, Franklin was sick. After that, he could not move his legs. The doctor said he could never walk again. Many people would have give up then. Franklin Roosevelt did not give up. He began to work to get well again. Even though he could not get out of bed, he did exercises, and his shoulders and arms grew very strong. At last the doctors let him out of bed, but he had to wear heavy metal braces(支撑架)on his legs. Then he went to Warm Spring, Georgia. He swam in the warm water there. Even though it was painful to move his legs, he kept on swimming and exercising them. He grew better until he could leave the braces off. He could walk with only a stick to help him. 「The only thing we have to fear is fear itself,」 President Roosevel t told people.
How to learn English well? First, we should keep on using English if we want to learn it well. If we often do listening, speaking, reading and writing, we will improve our ability to use the language greatly. Second, grammar is important . It helps us understand and use English freely. But grammar is not everything. It is not a good way to spend most of our time on grammar. We are learning English, we are not learning about English. Last, at the beginning of our English study, we should pay more attention to listening and speaking. Try to have good intonation and pronunciation. Listening and speaking are closely connected with reading and writing. You cannot read and write well unless you are good at listening and speaking. If you insist on practising using English, you will find it not a hard job to learn English well.
结论句(Concluding sentence)也称总结句，它标志着段落的结束，自然应位于一段的结尾。结论句可用来重述主题、提供问题的解决方式，对未来进行预测，提出问题让读者思考，或对全段内容加以概述。结论之前常会出现 In short, In a word, Therefore等词语。但并非所有的段落都需要结论句，有的也可采用自然结束的方式。如：
１ My brother is crazy because he seems to spend every cent he has on skiing. Last summer he bought the most expensive skis and poles that he could find. A few weeks later, he just bought a pair of custom-made ski boots. Then he found that his jacket and pants, which were only one season old, weren』t good enough, and replaced them with the best new jacket and pants he could find. Every weekend last winter, he traveled to a different ski resort to try out the slopes. He even went to Alaska for two weeks in the spring. Next year he says he』s going to Switzerland for a month. My brother is nothing but a skiing nut.
该段采用的是以新的措辞重述中心思想。 「My bother is nothing but a skiing nut.」是对该段主题的再次陈述。
２ Some children do not work hard in the school, and so do not achieve as much as they can. Why does this happen? One reason may be a fear of failure. Children are expected to achieve too much. They are afraid they may not succeed, so they do less.Another cause for failure may be inner conflict. Children may be worried about certain tests at home. As a result, they devoted less attention to their studies. Poor teaching is another possible cause. Sometimes the teacher fails to make the subjects interesting. This can cause children to become bored and not work hard. As we see, the reasons are varied and complex. Teachers and parents should try to understand these children before they scold them for not working hard.
３ I had a very unlucky day yesterday. Everything went wrong. In the morning my alarm clock didn』t ring so I woke up one hour late. I was in such a hurry that I burned my hand when I was making breakfast. Then I ran out of the house to catch the 8︰30 bus, but of course I missed it. I was very unhappy because my teacher gets angry if anyone is late for class. I ran three miles to the school only to discover that it was Sunday .
1.(主题句： Only a mother』s love is selfless love.)
结尾句 What great love this is!
2.(主题句： Life is limited, but knowledge is boundless.)
结尾句 How important it is to read good books!
3.(主题句： Books are full of knowledge and wisdom.)
结尾句 Why shouldn』t we read more books to search more and use them to develop our splendid future?
4.(主题句： From Monday to Friday we go to school, and we have to do so on Saturday and Sunday. Our rights of enjoying our weekends have been taken away by those who wish us to do well in our lessons.)
结尾句： In short, for young people, not only are we eager for knowledge but also we are thirsty for colourful lives. Let』s become the real masters of weekends.
5.(主题句： When I was a little girl, I lived with my grandparents in a faraway village.)
结尾句： Time was gone with the wind. But my childhood is like amber(琥珀), glittering in my life.
6.(主题句： Confucius(孔子)was one of the greatest sages(贤人)and ethical philosophers(伦理哲学家)in China.)
结尾句： No other reformer has held such influence over a great part of humanity for so long a period.
7.(主题句： Success comes with hard work.)
结尾句 So, as Thomas Edison once said, genius is one percent inspiration(灵感)and ninety-nine percent perspiration(辛劳).
从以上的例子，我们可以清楚地看出主题句和结论句的关系，结论句在意思上和主题句保持一致，与主题句紧密呼应，但又不是简单的重复。例1和例2 运用感叹句，例3 运用问句，例4 运用一句总结，例5 则运用一个比喻，例6 运用概括，例7 则运用了一句名言，它们都起到强化主题思想的作用，给读者留下了较深的印象。
１ Some people believe wealth can not bring them happiness. For example, when one gets a fortune, the family members will come from different parts of the country and try to share the wealth with him. And afterwards, they will quarrel with one another, trying to share more. And sometimes even appear blood fight and killing. What a terrible result!
２ TV plays an important part in our daily life nowadays. It provides us news at home and abroad and it brings us much pleasure. We can spend our spare time happily with TV. For example, cartoons are great fun to children. Children can also learn a lot from TV programs.
３ TV sometimes has a bad effect on students. First, watching TV too much does great harm to their health, especially to their eyes. Second, if children spend too much time on TV, they will certainly spend less time in reading. Besides, some programs are not suitable for children. They will perhaps lead children to the wrong way.
４ Sign language is a way of talking by using signs. Indians use sign language when they met strangers. In this way, they could find out whether the stranger was a friend or an enemy. In Indian sign language, signs are made with the hands . One sign meant 「man」. Another meant「horse」. To tell the time of a day when something happened, an Indian pointed to the sky. He showed where the sun had been at the time.
１ Air pollution is a very serious problem. There are too many vehicles that send out poisonous gases to pollute the air. There are also a great number of shops and boats that leak oil to pollute the harbor and kill sea lives. Laziness is another bad point. People here seem to depend too much on machinery to do their work.
２ Traffic accidents have increased in our city recently. What are the main causes? One cause for these accidents is that there are too many buses and trucks. Besides, some drivers pay no attention to traffic rules. They drive after drinking, they talk with passengers while driving, and they rush through crossroads paying no attention to the traffic lights. Now that the students』vacation is coming, a lot of them will go out. At the same time, the Spring Festival is coming soon. So there will be traffic jams in the street. We must do something to avoid more traffic accidents in our city.
Instant noodles is a kind of good food for home and travelling. It tastes good, （and） is easy to take because it doesn』t need cooking. （So） it can save us a lot of time especially when we are busy or on travels. （Now） let me tell you how to have it. （First） put noodles into a bowl, （and） soup stock as well. （Second）, pour in 500cc boiling water. The water should be over the noodles. （ Then）cover the bowl and keep the noodles covered for three minutes. （Now）, the noodles are ready to be taken. Please have a try for yourself.
１ 附加、递进： also, and, and, then, in addition, furthermore, moreover
２ 时间： now, then, before, after, later, soon, next, meanwhile, finally, eventually
３ 比较： like, unlike, similarly, just like, just as, likewise, in the same way
４ 对照： but, still, however, while, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, despite, in spite of
５ 因果： because, since, so, consequently, hence, as a result, therefore, thus, because of this
６ 目的： for this purpose, so that, in order that, so as to, in order to
７ 解释： for example, for instance,
８ 总结： in summary, in conclusion, in short, in brief, that is
９ 让步： although, though, even though, no matter wh-
If you are like me, and you really believe that children』s living is important, and that all school experiences should be happy, then go and open your children』s fifth or sixth or seventh or eighth grade English textbook, have a look at it and cry.
下一段同样不长，却不够简洁。重复的「He enjoyed」，以及「took pleasure」的出现使语言显得累赘，拖拉。
Charles was not a very clever boy. He was good at doing the things that interested him. He enjoyed collecting bird』s eggs. He enjoyed fishing. He enjoyed shooting and he enjoyed long walks with his dogs. He also took pleasure in carrying out experiments, and took pleasure in making「all the gases」. His friends called him 「Gas」.
Ladies and gentlemen,
(1)I』m very glad to welcome you all to our factory.(2)First of all, I wish to say a few words about our factory.(3)It was set up in October, 1986.(4)We spent only fourteen months in finishing building our factory.(5)There are five workshops in our factory and 1250 workers here. most of whom are young people.(6)More than 400 workers have had some college education and more than 800 workers have had middle school education.(7)Our factory mainly produces fertilizers(肥料).(8)In the past few years our factory has advanced rapidly.(9)Now we have raised our output of fertilizers to more than 400 thousand tons a year .(10)The total output value of our factory added up to 100 million yuan last year.
That』s all. Thank you.
(1)导入 (2)主题句 (3)事实 (4)举例 (5)事实 (6)事实举例 (7)事实 (8)事实 (9)事实 (10)结尾句
(1)Why is the Blue-sky School so popular in our city?(2)The school is well-known for its long history.(3)Its campus is well arranged with trees and flowers here and there, and also with a long passage from the teaching building to the dormitory through the dining hall.(4)The school is well equipped.(5)The teaching buildings, the experiment labs and the language labs, the computer rooms, the library as well as the gymnasium are better than any other schools.(6)But the most important reason is the excellent teachers and teaching results.(7)Most teachers in this school are rich both in knowledge and in experience.(8)They have patience and deep love for the students.(9)As a result, most of its graduates are excellent not only in intelligence but in morality as well, among whom some are now state or city leaders, managers, engineers, writers, teachers, doctors and model workers.(10 )What a good school!
(1)主题句 (2)~(5)理由一(环境) (6)~(8)理由二(师资) (9)理由三(结果) (10)结尾句
(1)A snake is a strange animal.(2)It walks on its ribs(肋骨)and it smells with its tongue.(3)Since its teeth are sharp like needles and not good for chewing, it swallow its food whole. (4)The snake』s jaws can stretch a great deal.(5)Its body, too, can stretch to several times as its normal size.(6)So even a small snake can easily swallow a mouse whole, and a snake just an inch across can gulp(吞)down a young bird three inches across.(7)Such a large meal might last the snake for months.(8)In fact, some snakes have been known to go without eating for as long as two years.
Lunar New Year(阴历新年)is quite a great event for the Chinese. Long before it arrives, children look forward to it with great eagerness. Already the markets and stores are beginning to fill up with crowds of people, as according to the custom , all the stores and businesses are usually closed for three to five days during the holidays. Several days before the new year, farmers kill pigs, sheep, cocks and hens, and city-dwellers buy meat, fish and vegetables. Houses are cleaned, couplets(对联)are pasted on the doors. Colourful lanterns are hung at the gates. On the eve of the year, each family has its members gather together to eat a family reunion dinner. After the meal they watch a special program on TV until the clock strikes twelve. Then every family set off long strings of small firecrackers to welcome the new year. On the first day of the new year, almost everyone is dressed in his or her best. When people meet on the streets, they say to each other 「Happy New Year」. Fri ends and relatives pay new year calls and give presents among themselves. Children enjoy themselves in games.
上文描述了阴历新年前后的欢乐情景，从long before it(the lunar New Year)arrives开始，然后是several days before the new year, 接着on the eve of the new year, 其中又分the meal 前后的情景，最后是on the first day of the new year。文中按照时间顺序描述，给读者理解内容勾画出了一幅清晰生动的画面，使读者留下深刻的印象。
在时间顺序表达手法中，经常使用的时间过渡词和词组有：now, then, before, after, afterwards, earlier, later，at first, at once, at the beginning, at the moment, at the same time, immediately, soon, next, meanwhile, gradually, suddenly, finally, recently以及表示具体的时间状语短语，例如：in January, on Monday, on the morning of, in 1996, in spring, in a few days, in the past five years, one morning, the day before yesterday 等。
In the western suburbs of the city of Jinan, there stands a small village. That is my native place. My native place is full of beauty. A green hill is behind it, and a wide field in front. Around the village, there is a little stream in which fish is swimming to and fro. The most populous part of the village is in the west. There are many stone houses standing among the green trees. In the east of the village there is a temple, which has been used for a primary school. If one stands on the hill, he is sure to see a perfect view of the village.
near, near to, close to, far, far from, in front of, beyond, above, to the right/left, in/to the east of, around, surrounding, on the side, on the other side, inside, outside , alongside, over, throughout, towards, in the middle, in the centre, at the top, at the foot, at the bottom, at the edge, at the end of, across, on the opposite of, leading to等。
Today, women』s life is much better than ever before. In the past women couldn』t get a job. They could only stay at home to take care of babies. But now women can get jobs easily and they can do any work as men do. In cities, all girls can go to school, and even in the countryside many girls can go to school, too.
Now, people cherish girls as much as boys. They say girls and boys are the same. In their homes, husbands also do housework.
People often say, 「Women hold up half of the sky.」In fact, women play a very important role in today』s society.
I believe that one day, there will be a woman president in China.
My hometown is quite different from what it used to be. Just a little more than ten years ago my hometown was a small quiet place. The houses were small and mean(简陋的). The streets were for the most part narrow and winding(曲曲弯弯). There were few people in the streets and shops. Now, everything has changed. Looking in every direction from the centre of the town, one sees a long succession of giant, imposing buildings. The streets, whether long or short, are straight, spacious, and well-shaded. Crowds of people can be found here and there, hurrying, noisy, and well-dressed. From a dull little village with clusters of shabby houses in the past, my hometown has now transformed into a big city, cheerful, colourful, bustling and prosperous.
表示比较对照的常用过渡词有： differ from, equal, contrast with, similarly, however, in the same way, on the other hand, on the contrary, both... and, but, and... too, one ... the other, while, whereas, just like, likewise, in spite of, even though, instead 等。