Hone your interview skills 磨练访谈技巧
Much of the material utilized in an academic paper will come from books, cataloged papers, and other printed material, as well as from electronic and online sources. Handling of information from those sources has been addressed in previous tips. But what about the scientific peer , the working historian, or the discovered contemporary whose insights are not written down? This is where interviewing skills can elicit information—while giving full credit to the living source.
The recording of answers in an interview first of all has a mechanical dimension. The answers do not exist until the person being interviewed speaks. If they are not property recorded, they still do not exist. Therefore, it is important to test and properly operate a recording device before and during an interview. As a backup, it also is a good idea for the interviewer to take as many notes as possible without losing the thread of the conversation or treating the interviewee rudely.
In written notes, the assumption should be that all sentences or sentence parts are exact quotes.Quotes, paraphrases, and interviewer observations must be clearly denoted, perhaps using pens with different ink colors. Distinguishing among the notes is especially vital when a digital recording is not allowed. Memory should not be relied upon to make the notational distinctions. If a sloppy writer inadvertently steals verbal expression by calling it his own, he is a plagiarist.