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Essay代写:如何表达更加得体?

Dueduedue官方博客2018-04-26essay代写 421 0A+A-

意思的正确表达不仅依赖于句子的正确性,更有赖于句子的得体性,所谓得体性就是指所用语言符合说话者的身份,以及所处的环境,否则不仅无法正确表达自己的思想,甚至会取得相反的效果。句子的得体性还表现在语言的简洁性、措辞的准确性、表意的明确性和主题内容的合理性。在词的选择上能够注意正式与非正式的区别、抽像与具体的差异、褒贬的不同以及语气强弱的差别。写作时,不论哪一类文章,最重要的是用英语思维,避免用汉语翻译,文章以叙述、说明清楚为主,所用语法要正确、得当,符合英语的表达习惯。

一、语言的简洁性

句子的写作应直截了当、言简意赅,避免冗长、乏味。一般写作中,尤其是在普通的叙述文中,应以简洁、朴实的词语为佳,避免矫饰、复杂。

使句子简练的方式很多,常见的有:

  1. 用单词代替短语。如下面这些短语均可用括号中的词代替:from time to time(often),It is clear that...(Clearly...),draw a conclusion(conclude),with anger(angrily),of great importance(important)

2. 避免使用同义重复。如下面这些句子,括号部分重复,应删掉。

  • He is blind (in both eyes).

  • In my opinion, (I think) your plan is feasible.

  • The desk is round (in shape) and red (in color).

  • It was a rainy day, (cloudy and humid).

  • I shall accompany my mother (by going with her) to the market.

3. 避免结构重复。如下面这些句子,括号内为同义重复,应删掉。

  • He likes English very much and I(like English very much), too.

  • Without air, the night time would be very cold and the days(would be)very hot.

  • Reading makes a full man, conference(makes)a ready man, and writing(makes)an exact man.

4. 用短语代替从句。试对比下列改写前后的句子:

1 Do you know the man who is speaking at the meeting?

→Do you know the man speaking at the meeting?

2 He suggested that he be sent to tend the sick.

→He suggested being sent to tend the sick.

3 Look out for cars while you are crossing the street.

→Look out for cars while crossing the street.

4 He attended the party though he was badly ill.

→He attended the party in spite of his illness.

5. 变换句式。试对比下列改写后的句子:

  • He did not come to school because of his illness.→Illness pretended him from coming to school.

  • Take this medicine, and you will get well.→This medicine will make you well.

  • It seems that he is ill.→He seems to be ill.

二、措辞的准确性

正确措辞是写好文章的基础。句子的得体性离不开正确的用词。在用词方面应注意以下两方面:

(一)具体明确

词语选择是遣词造句的基础。写作时应特别注意词的运用。具体词与抽像词不可混用。为了意思表达的准确,一般应以具体词为佳。会引起歧义的句子尽量不用。如:

(1)John told his classmate that he had passed the exam.

修正:John said to his classmate,「I(You)have passed the exam.」

分析:代词指代不明很容易让人产生误解。 he指的是约翰还是他的同学呢?修正后句意更加明确了。

注意:写作中应避免「歧义句」的出现。这类句子不仅意思表达不清,还会让读者产生误解。再如:

1 He introduced me to the worker. He had looked after him when he was in hospital.

修正:He introduced me to the worker whom he had looked after in hospital.

或:He introduced me to the worker who had looked after him in hospital.

2 She found her in hospital when she woke up.

修正:She found herself in hospital when she woke up.

(2)At the age of five,my mother began to teach me to learn English.

修正:When I was five years old,my mother began to teach me to learn English.(改介词短语为状语从句)

或:At the age of five,I began to learn English from my mother.(改主句主语)

分析:这个句子很容易让人产生误解。 「五岁」到底指的是谁呢?修改后,主语明确,意思明了。

注意:分词短语、不定式短语用作状语时,它们的逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致。有些情况下,用介词短语作状语时也要考虑这种逻辑关系。再如:

1 After waiting for an hour or so,the bus arrived at last.

修正:After we had been waiting for an hour or so,the bus arrived at last.(改为状语从句)

2 Without your help,my English hasn』t been improved so rapidly.

修正:Without your help,I couldn』t have made so rapid progress in English.(改主句主语)

(二)注意同义词的区别

即使同一物体的不同名称含义也会有别。所以没有完全一样的同义词,用词不同,词义就会发生变化,甚至会造成错误用词。如:little, small, tiny。 a little boy与a small boy 含义有别,前者含有「可爱」之意,而后者却含有身材「瘦小」之意,a small but great man 可表一个身材瘦小的伟人,但a little but great man就不能成立。再例如:

原句:I am working hard and I wish that I could go to college.(劣)

修正:I am working hard and I hope that I can go to college.(优)

分析:原句用的是虚拟语气,在表达上显得不够得体。作者本想表达自己美好的愿望,而虚拟语气表达的是难以实现的愿望。真不知这位同学到底想不想上大学。

注意:虚拟语气常用来表达不真实的愿望。使用时,许多同学往往只注意其语法形式是否正确,却忽略了它的真正含义。又如:

原句:I wish you could enjoy your stay here.(劣)

修正:I hope that you may have a pleasant time here.(或:May you have a pleasant time here!)(优)

分析:此句多出现在致欢迎词或导游词的结尾。对别人的祝愿应是真诚的。显然,用虚拟语气显得不够恰当。

三、主题内容的合理性

主题内容的合理性是指说话者每句话都有自己的语句重心。结构的变化会使不同的语义得到突出。为此,写作时作者必须注意强调手段的合理运用。

(一)正确使用从属结构

1 The Forbidden City, which is famous all over the world, is located in the center of Beijing.

The Forbidden City, located in the center of Beijing, is famous all over the world.

2 Every visitor to Beijing will go to climb the Great Wall, one of the wonders of the world.

The Great Wall, which every visitor to Beijing will go to climb, is one of the wonders of the world.

这两句主从的变化使语句中心发生了变化。 1中的第一句侧重介绍紫禁城的位置,而第二句却侧重它在世界上的知名度。 2中的第一句强调长城受游客的欢迎,而第二句则侧重介绍它是世界上的奇观之一。可见从属结构对语意的表达起到了十分重要的作用。

(二)利用语序

一般说来,句首和句尾是语句的中心所在。重要的信息应置于句首或句尾,尤其是句尾。层递法就是利用了句尾强调的手法。如:

1 He has an ear for music, I think.

将 I think 置于句尾,似乎是说,最起码我认为是这样。如强调他确实有音乐天赋,最好改为下面的结构:

He has, I think, an ear for music.

2 He is neat, pleasant, and honest.

该句将honest置于句尾,自然强调他的诚实,而下一句中,诚实却成了次要的特征。

He is neat, honest, and pleasant.

(三)利用倒装结构

有时为了加强语气,可用倒装语序。如:

In rushed the naughty boy.

With the black clouds came a shower.

The great poet was born poor, and poor he remained till death.

(四)重复

重复也可起到强调的作用。如:

...that a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish(灭亡)from the earth.Money is short, very short.We』ll come here no more. No more, no more, no more.

(五)利用加强语气的词语或句型

英语中有些词语和句型本身就有强调的功能,可以充分利用。例如:

This is the very reason I want to kill you.

What on earth are you talking about?

She herself is to blame for the accident.

Do drop in the next time you come to China.

If I have any at all, I will lend you.

It is during my stay in China last summer that I got to know him.

划线词的使用使句子中部分意思得到加强。

Exercise

1,改写下列句子,使其更简洁

  • Do you know the girl who is dressed in red?

  • Sorry, can you repeat it again?

  • Tom has been accepted into college and Jack has been accepted into college as well.

  • To my surprise, I was surprised to find no one there when I got there.

  • A teacher who has experience should have an idea about what he should do in such a condition.

  • The story I am going to tell you is a story that I heard from a man who is a friend of mine.

  • We started at 8︰00 a.m. in the morning and got there at 5︰00 p.m. in the afternoon.

  • He whispered to me in a low voice that he loved me.

  • Mrs Green is a woman of about sixty years of age.

  • Owing to the fact that I have a lot of work to do, it isn』t possible for me to accept your invitation to go to the cinema to see the film.

2,请选择适当的单词填空

  • I hope this medicine will(cure/treat/heal)you of your cold.

  • I will never forget the(small/little)town I was brought up in.

  • No law will(permit/allow/let)the sale of such drugs.

  • I am sorry to hear that your father has(passed away/kicked the bucket).

  • He was(blamed/charged/accused)for being late at work.

3,强调下列句中的括号部分

  • My name is (Green Wang).

  • I have (never) met him before.

  • This is the (place I) got robbed the other day.

  • I got home (at 11︰00) yesterday.

  • I like to be with him. He is handsome. He is kind. He is (good-tempered).

  • The man I introduced to you yesterday is (clever).

  • (Come) to my party, please.

参考答案

  1. 该句中定语从句可改为介词短语使句子变得更加简练,故该句可简化为:Do you know the girl in red?

  2. repeat 与 again语义重复,可将 again去掉。

  3. 前后结构重复,可简化为:Tom has been accepted into college and Jack has, as well.

  4. To my surprise 与 I was surprised 语义重复,可简化为:I was surprised to find no one there when I arrived.

  5. 该句可以采用结构简化的方式改写,简化为:An experienced teacher should know what to do in such a situation.

  6. 该句应采用结构简化的方式改写,简化为:I』m going to tell you a story I heard from a friend of mine.

  7. a.m. 与 in the morning, p.m.与 in the afternoon同义重复,应将一部分删掉,简化为:We started at 8︰00 a.m. and got there at 5︰00 p.m. .

  8. whisper in a low voice 语义重复,应将 in a low voice删掉。

  9. sixty years of age 可简化为60。即:Mrs Green is a woman of 60./Mrs Green is a sixty-year-old woman.

  10. 该句中存在结构复杂和语义重复现象,可简化为:I have a lot of work to do and can』t accept your invitation to go to the cinema.


  1. 治疗某人的病应用 cure。

  2. 「不会忘记」说明对它有感情,所以应用 little。

  3. 用于法律规定等正式场合应用 permit。

  4. 表示听到对方父亲去世的消息而感到悲痛,在这种情况下,kick the bucket显然是不得当的,应用 pass away。

  5. 迟到是件小事,应该用程度弱的词语,即 blame。

  1. 可将划线部分提前:Green Wang is my name.

  2. never 置于句首可表示强调:Never have I met him before.

  3. place 前可加 very表示强调:This is the very place that I got robbed the other day.

  4. 本句可用强调句型:It was at 11︰00 that I got back home yesterday.

  5. 本句可采用层递法强调:I like to be with him. He is handsome, kind and good-tempered.

  6. 将一般置于句尾的成分置于句首,同样可起强调的作用:Clever, very clear is the man I introduced to you yesterday.

  7. 加强祈使句的语气可使用助动词:Do come to my party.

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