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如何写好论文?如何理解抄袭和引用?

Dueduedue官方博客2017-10-23essay代写 592 0A+A-

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想要了解抄袭?引用?阅读下面这篇文章,帮你分的清清楚楚明明白白!今天我们就收集了一份来自英国某高校老师的专业讲解,看看这位老师如何手把手来教你写出好论文!(文章配有中英文,大家读起来更涨知识啦)

Must-Read Series Part 1: A lecturer’s guide to writing a good dissertation – Understanding Plagiarism, Ghost-writing and Referencing.

我亲爱的同学们,实不相瞒,今天绝对是一个喜大普奔的好日子!

观众云:what are you 弄啥类?

因为今天我要从我这个专(jue)业(dui)人(nei)士(hang)角度出发,仔仔细细教你看清写论文里的各种小把戏,学会各种小技巧。

I will be giving you an inside look into the tips and tricks that can help you improve your dissertation. As a university lecturer, I understand the many difficulties international students face before they even put pen to paper. Terms like plagiarism, and referencing confuse even the most able students – but not anymore. In this edition of our Must-Read Series, I will demystify Plagiarism, Ghost-writing and Referencing.

作为一个大学老师,我是相当的理解你们每次写论文时候痛苦万分的心情。很多时候都不知道要怎么写出第一句话,更不要说一整篇论文的那种几近崩溃的心情有木有,而且,分(wan)类(quan)细(bu)致(dong)的各种要求和定义一大堆,比如光是“抄袭”和“引用”的定义就不知道迷惑了多少的莘莘学子。在今天的这篇文章里,我就来教大家分清楚,到底啥叫“抄袭”,“代写”和“引用”。

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Plagiarism

We’ve all heard the phrase, but what does it really mean? Essentially, plagiarism refers to a student using statements made by others without referencing them. If you find yourself in the situation where you are trying to pretend that a piece of work is your own when it really is not, then that is considered plagiarism.

Why is it so serious?

Plagiarism is taken very seriously because it is simply a form of cheating. Now you may have heard stories about a ‘friend-of-a-friend’ escaping the watchful eye of their lecturers and universities, but consider this sheer luck and are likely to use Turnitin which detects any possible plagiarism from your submitted work. At worst, some may even consider removing a student from their programme of study or the university, if they repeatedly submit plagiarised work.

What should I remember?

The main thing to remember is to plan your time and reference appropriately. Unfortunately, plagiarism often occurs from students forgetting to use in-text citations, footnotes and bibliographies (this will be covered in the last section). We lecturers do want you to showcase your wide reading and therefore want you to include referenced arguments made by experts. It would be easier if you could mark the references whilst you are writing the essay, and consolidate the bibliography after finish writing. Nowadays, many reference generating servises are available online, you may would like to have a try.

抄袭

“抄袭”这词人人都听过,但究竟是个啥意思?其实,抄袭就是指明明引用了别人说过的话或是写过的句子,却不事先声明一下自己在引用,而是假装自己原创。就好比你写了句全世界人都知道的’To be or not to be, it is a problem.’ 在自己的文章里,但没有注明这是莎翁的句子,那就算作是抄袭啦!

为什么大家把“抄袭”这回事看的如此重要?

其实就是简单的不能再简单的原因啦,因为“抄袭”就是一种作弊。你可能有听说过哪个小伙伴的小伙伴顺利的逃过了学校的审查,抄袭没有被发现。然而这绝对是在铤而走险,绝对不要去尝试!绝对不要去尝试!绝对不要去尝试!(重要的话说三遍)每个大学都把抄袭这回事看的非常非常非常重要,都会用Turnitin系统去检查每篇论文抄袭的可能性。如果抄袭重复发生,学校是可能直接要求学生退学的(吓死宝宝了)!

写论文的时候关于“抄袭”得记得干啥?

最主要要做的事情,其实就是一定要记得合理安排你的写论文时间,并且永远记得要注明“引用”啦!很多时候很可惜的是,同学们忘记了要使用文章中引用,脚注,还有文献目录(今天文章的最后一段会具体解释这三项哦)。作为老师,我们是真心希望看到同学们为了写论文做了大量的阅读,所以希望你们可以把那些引用过的语句都标注出来,也方便我们正确合理的给你们论文打分啦。最好是能在写的时候就标记reference,并且归纳bibliography。而且现在很多网站都能帮大家规整,不妨试试。

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Referencing (aka citing)

Importance of referencing. As mentioned previously, referencing, also known as citing, is a key area which often gets overlooked by many students, due to its low mark allocation. But remember, without referencing appropriately, you could be caught for plagiarism.

I would describe referencing as a method to highlight the information sources used in the body of any text. Referencing is used to acknowledge statements or quotes from an expert, and to allow the reader to trace the source. Please use published sources as references such as academic textbooks, journals (e.g. business journals), newspapers (broadsheet newspapers, not tabloid newspapers), and government sources (such as a range of news websites) rather than sources whereby it is often not possible to know the writer and therefore have no idea of the level of trustworthiness of the source (such as Wikipedia). If you would like to cite other’s dissertation, it is usually viable for those written by PHDs, as other dissertations are normally not published, and may result in suspicision of plagiarism.

What supervisors look for?

Dissertation supervisors and lecturers expect you and every other student to follow the rules set by a specific referencing system, i.e. Harvard-style or Chicago. Firstly you need to ensure you understand what these rules are for each type of source you use (e.g. online source, book, journal, newspaper, etc). Once you have the understanding you must adhere to those given rules. For example, if you put forth an argument from ‘expert A’, it is essential to include their name and date of source in brackets, within the text.

How to reference i.e. Harvard Template/Example

To fully understand the referencing method for commonly used materials, make sure to visit your university library.

I hope you are now armed with the knowledge to write a great dissertation!

Last but not least, I would like to emphasize again that integrity is always the most important thing that UK schools and teachers concerns. You may have noticed that there have been more examinations especially set for Chinese students these years. This is actually a method that schools use to assess the true ability of students again, reducing the chance of plagiarism and ghost-writing being neglected.

参考/引用

引用的重要性

前文也有提及过,“引用”又被成为“参考”,是非常重要却又容易被同学们忽略的一件事,因为每篇论文给引用这一项的分值分配都很少。然而千万要记得的是,如果没有正确的进行“引用”,你可能就会成为被误认为是“抄袭”的冤大头啦!

在我看来,引用是一种标注出所有正文里信息来源的方法。它能指所有来自专(bie)家(ren)说过的话或是写过的句子,从而帮助读者找到每一句这样的陈述的来源。还有一点要注意的是,reference一定要来源于出版过的文献,教科书、杂志期刊、大型报纸(不是小报哦!)、官方信息(比如新闻公报之类的)。不能是未知作者的的文献,比如维基百科。如果想投机取巧用Wikipedia的话,大概还是死了这条心为好,还有人会想引用别人的论文,但是请千万记住,一般只有博士的毕业论文才有参考价值,别的论文因为没有被出版过,所以还是不要引用了,搞不好还会被算作抄袭。

指导/监督老师找的是啥?

论文导师和讲师通常希望同学们能够遵循一种标准的引用系统进行引用,比如哈佛标准或者芝加哥标准。首先,你应该了解这两种不同系统的引用标准,对于每一种引用来源的标准都要清!清!楚!楚!比如网上来源,文献,期刊,报纸等等。当你搞清楚了这些标准以后,记得在作引用的时候,要完完全全的按照这些标准来。比如说,你想要在论文里写一句来自“专家A”说的观点,就一定要记得在文章里面的括号里标注好专家的名字以及说这句话的时间。

到底怎么作引用?

如果你想要清清楚楚的了解引用常用信息来源的方法和标准,比如哈佛标准,你可以到学校图书馆去找一找相关手册或者例子,看懂了那些例子以后,自然也就能融会贯通地自己进行论文里的引用啦!

说了这么多,希望同学们现在都能够分清楚“抄袭”,“代写”和“引用”的区别,并且把正确的引用方式运用到以后自己写论文的过程中啦!

最后的最后,还是想要强调一下:永远记得诚信是英国学校和老师最最看中的。想必大家可能感觉得近两年中国学生集中的专业考试越来越多,其实基本上就是学校和老师为了防止抄袭和代写非法获得好成绩,想要再次检验学生真是水平。所以在你心中一千万只草泥马狂奔地准备考试的时候,要知道这场考试可能就是因为你的前辈留给你的礼(xue)物(zhai)。

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Welcome back students! As autumn is well under way, many of us have already scoured our wardrobes for coats and scarfs, and the kitchen for that warm cup of coco. But unfortunately October never disappoints in bringing along assignments, assignments and more assignments. To make sure you hit the new term running, I will be giving you an inside look into the tips and tricks that can help you improve your dissertation.  As a university lecturer, I understand the many difficulties international students face when structuring and presenting their work. Let this be a thing of the past. In this edition of our Must-Read Series, I will break down the best way of producing an A-grade presented and composed piece of work.

欢迎回来!一转眼秋天就到;小热裤也都没法穿了;超市里热巧也开始越来越受欢迎了。当然还有: 作业,作业,作业!别担心,为了帮你顺利熬过这人生中最黑暗的时期, 今天要告诉大家写论文的各种小技巧,各种小秘籍。虽然我是老师,但还是会感同身受(委媛:毕竟也被虐过);大部分留学生都会面临写论文的一系列问题。我要做的就是把你从这场噩梦中拯救出来了(当然不是叫你找代写啦)!在今天这篇文章里我要教大家四个重要的因素:CW,学术写作风格,标点和拼写以及论文表述。

(CW) Command Words

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What are ‘command words’?

首先,CW到底有什么意思呢?(原来审题也有这么大的学问!)

Ah, good ol’ command words. When I was a student, it took me a long time to understand what they are and why getting top marks depends on your understanding of them. The best definition of a command word is, the main verbs that appear in an assessment question. Command words indicate what approach should be applied to answering the question.

听到Commands word这个词,估计很多同学就会心碎一地。在我还上学的时候,我也花了很长时间才弄清楚CW是究竟是什么,为什么它对论文成绩这么重要。在我看来,CW是问题里最主要的动词,这决定着论文应该采取哪种方法来回答问题。

For example:

“Compare the differences between…” Compare: discuss two or more things in terms of their similarities and differences.

“Please evaluate…” Evaluate: judge; criticise in terms of impact/significance, and investigate the implications.

“Assess the reasons why…” Assess: decide the value of; judge; measure the importance of something.

例句一: “把甲与乙比较起来”(比较,是指对比几种同类事物的异同、优劣),

例句二: “评价一下”(通常是指对一件事或人物进行判断、分析后的结论),

例句三: “评估原因”(对方案进行评估和论证,确认其重要性)。

Are they really important?

为什么CW如此重要?

In short, yes. Comprehending command words is a common issue for a range of students I work with. A misunderstanding of the command word will lead to you misunderstanding the question. If, for example, you are asked to ‘evaluate’ the use of a business model by a particular organisation, but you end up simply ‘describing’ it instead, there is a strong likelihood that the marker will consider your written response to be descriptive rather than evaluative; therefore not really providing an appropriate response to the actual task given. In the end marks will be taken off.

简而言之,试想一下,如果不知道规则,肯定就不能好好玩耍了,是不是?错误地理解CW必然导致误解问题本身方面——比如:论文问题要求评估一种商业模式,倒但你就只描述商业模式有什么细节。不言而喻,那你的老师就会认为你写的论文文不对题,那就只能和高分说拜拜咯。(委媛套用一句古话:干活不由东,累死也无功。不按照老师的意思写,肯定没戏……)

Okay, but what should I do?

明白了,但我该怎么办呢?

Make a list of command words and find each definition. When you have time, I suggest you look online for basic assignment questions and practise writing short answers. Every little bit helps! Remember, understanding command words is a most significant step towards understanding what the assessment requires. In turn, you will be able to research and write your response effectively.

千万别忘了:CW是写好一篇论文的第一步。我建议,有空的时候先列一张CW清单,包括所有的中英解释和翻译。然后上网找一些简单的问题,并结合清单写一些简单的答案(或者学长学姐写过的题目,如果能找到的话)。以此来培养对于CW的理解,点滴积累就会收到回报,这样慢慢的你就会摸到方法了。

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学术写作 Academic Writing 

What is academic style writing?

什么叫“学术写作”?

My definition of academic writing is a clear and concise way of writing that expresses your ideas and understanding of a subject, often using more formal vocabulary, a defined structure, and clear evidence to support your arguments.

我对于学术写作的定义就是:用简单明了的语言书面阐述你对于题目的想法和理解,基本上的三大因素是正式英语(口语滴,不行),标准的结构和清楚的证据。

How do I adopt an academic style in my writing?

采用这种风格难不难?

Be objective: Try to avoid using the first person. Any arguments you present should be presented in the third person or in a way which does not stress your personal opinion too strongly e.g.: ‘It could be said that…’ or ‘Some have argued that…’ etc, (unless specified by your institution that they want you to include personal opinions throughout). You may need to present your final opinion in the conclusion however. Remember to support your views with evidence from other sources.

客观来说:尽量避免使用第一人称。第三人称能够保持作者(你)和阅读者之间的最大距离,从此清清楚楚地阐述双方的观点,而且也不会使得你的观点特别突兀。论文之所以能体现客观性是因为论文旨在提供真实信息;直白的加入你自己的意见很可能扭曲论文的愿意(千千万万记得,我们既不是教授、研究员,也不是博士、博士后;我们自己的主张是不管用的,只能找牛人来支持我们。说白了就是抱大腿)。比如说:与‘我想’或‘对我来说’相比,‘可以这么说’和‘有人认为’这些句子听起来更客观可信,更真实,不是么?虽然说在论文的结尾可能需要你提出一点自己的简介,但是一定记住时时刻刻要有客观证据来支撑你的观点。

Structure your writing: Essays usually include an introduction, paragraphs covering different aspects of the subject (these may be divided into section i.e.: methodology, results etc) and a solid conclusion at the end. Each paragraph must also use this formula: P.E.E, which means Point, Example, and Explain. If you follow this basic structure for all paragraphs, I am sure you will start to make your writing better!

结构:学术论文的构架通常可分开到三个部分:概论,主体和结论,而主体也可以分开成不同部分。无论多大多小,每个段落都应该用一种简单而有效的标准格式: P.E.E标准格式(Point观点,Example例子,Explain解释分析, 名字不好听,不过确实如此)。这就是写好论文的核心一步。

Appropriate Language: Use more formal language and avoid contractions, slang or informal expressions. Instead use linking words and connecting phrases, such as, additionally, in contrast, in order to, as a consequence, despite the fact that etc.

写论文时该用正式英语,而不是网络用语和俚语。必要时记得用连词,让上下句,上下段能联系起来。(其实我们看着不通顺的论文就已经头大了,是不会给高分的)!

Remember to use your tenses appropriately. If you are talking about something which was said or done in the past, use the past tense. But if you are talking about something which is still true now or has an impact in the present, use the present tense e.g.: Smith stated that writing an essay requires certain skills (2010). Smith’s point illustrates that students need to work hard to achieve well (present).

还想得起中学老师们教你在什么情况下用过去时和现在时么?过去做的事儿 – 过去式;现在做着的事儿 – 现在时——用在论文里也不例外。例如: “The business introduced (过去式)

a new marketing campaign last year” 对比 “The business is currently creating (现在式)a new marketing campaign”. 不过如果你所说的事虽然发生在过去,可到目前为止一直没有变化,或者是对现在有影响,那也是要用现在时而不是过去时。

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标点和拼写 Punctuation and Spelling

Why is punctuation and spelling important?

为什么标点和拼写很重要?

Poor grammar is something us lecturers cannot stand. When writing an essay, it is important to remember your basic English skills, for example using articles, basic sentence structure and basic punctuation. Getting the basic punctuation and grammar right will mean the reader becomes more involved in your actual arguments, rather than struggling to understand the meaning of what you have written. It can also gain you extra marks overall.

如果你的论文有很多拼写、标点符号之类的问题时,我们第一反应就是觉得你对论文特别随便,所以说,在写的时候首先要记得就是使用基本的英语技能,比如基本句式、标点符号等等。正确的使用标点和语法,能够让读者(通常是评分老师)更好的理解你的立论,而不是被费尽心思猜你写的是什么,或者是被烂语法虐的想撞墙。所以,好的语法会给你加分的(这也是为什么很多学校的评分标准里,会有语法一项)。

What can I do to improve in this area?

我想进步进步!可以帮我么?

Try to follow the basic structure for paragraphs (P.E.E.), as outlined above. Also get someone else to check your work if possible and see if they can understand your meaning. Additionally, always spell check your work before submitting and factor in time to check your work before the final submission – checking should be part of the essay writing process!

通过上述的P.E.E标准格式,可以避免语法错误。另外,如果可以的话,请人来帮你检查,或者只是看一下他们理解的和你想阐述的是不是一样。最后,在提交之前,一定要再检查一下拼写。

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论文表达 Presentation

Why good presentation can get you higher marks – what do markers looks for?

为什么好的论文表达能帮你的高分?评分老师找的是什么?

I have realised throughout my experience that many students look at the mark scheme for presentation and see it as insignificant, due to the overall marking of their assignment. Thinking like this will definitely hinder your chances of getting a 1st or 2:1. When marking dissertations, I believe a well-written academic piece owes itself to a good structure. Ensure you follow the guidelines from your institution and have clearly defined sections and paragraphs. Also ensure that paragraphs are not too long and that sentences are concise and meaningful. If your marker has to go back and read sentences and paragraphs again, they are likely to give you lower marks, so ensure you make your arguments clearly and also reference appropriately.

论文表达是非常重要却又容易被忽略的一件事,因为论文表达这一项的分值权重都不太高。但要是因为这样就不重视表达的话,那就基本上跟一等或者二等一say拜拜了。在我做评分老师时,我个人坚信大部分好论文构架自然清晰。一定要照着学校的要求写,而且段落长度合理,句子含义清晰,引用正确。如果你的评分老师需要一再回过头读前面的句子,那么他们很可能不会给你高分。

论文阐述要求 General Presentation Requirements for Dissertations

Below is a basic outline of a dissertation or essay structure (this can vary between institutions slightly):

一般论文构架的轮廓如下:

Abstract

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Literature Review

Chapter 3. Methodology

Chapter 4. Results and Analysis

Chapter 5. Discussion

Chapter 6. Conclusion

Bibliography & Appendices

提要

第一章:导论

第二章:文献综述

第三章:研究方法

第四章:研究结果和分析

第五章:讨论

第六章:结论

参考资料

It’s a good idea to write an overall plan outlining what you need to cover in each chapter.

Think of a dissertation like a series of linked essays; each chapter is self-contained and has its own purpose, but they all connect together to contribute to the argument of your dissertation. The chapters don’t have to all be the same length – some can be longer because they are more detailed (like the literature review) and others can be shorter because they are summarising and finalising information (like the conclusion).

开始写论文前最好制定一个计划框架,详细说明每一个章的内容。尤其是大论文,一片大论文就像是一系列的链接在一起的小论文。每一章要求不同,而且有自己的目的。但是把它们连起来就是你的一篇毕业论文。每个章节不一定一样长,比如文献综述的内容就要比结论多。

I hope you are now armed with the knowledge to write a great dissertation! If you still have any questions, please contact me or the client care support team at CNA.

说了这么多,希望同学们记住这些小技巧。如果还有什么问题,欢迎联系我们。

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