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essay代写:如何避免动词和主词搭配错误?

Dueduedue官方博客2017-11-23文书修改 526 0A+A-

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基本上,主词搭配动词的概念是以下列两个原则为主:

1.单数主词搭配单数动词:

Chen rides his scooter to work every day.

2.复数主词搭配复数动词:

The students are climbing the walls like caged animals.

主词与动词的搭配原则看似十分容易,却也是作者最容易疏忽和犯错的地方。我们在编修论文时,最常修正的错误之一就是主词与动词的搭配。是什么原因让主词与动词的搭配变得这么困难?

其中一个原因是,当作者遇到又长又复杂的主词时,可能会被搞得昏头转向,而容易忘记哪一个名词才是整个主词片语的中心词,于是不小心将动词搭配给最靠近的名词,范例如下:

The arrival of new fall fashions have excited all the back-to-school shoppers.

此句的中心词应为arrival,而非fashions,因此应将句子改为:

The arrival of new fall fashions has excited all the back-to-school shoppers.

另一个写作陷阱是不使用标准的文法搭配规则,而是按照作者的意念来决定搭配方式,也就是不论真正的主词为单数或复数,动词搭配的是作者意念中的那一个主词。

Twenty-five rules is a lot to digest. 

在此范例中,「25条规则」被视为一个整体的单数的主词,因此后面接单数动词is。

Twenty-five rules are listed on the notice. 

这「25条规则」全部被列在公告中,25条规则在这里当复数主词,后面接复数动词are。

以下列出10种主词与动词的搭配规则,供大家写作时参考:

1. 除非主词的原意是单数,否则如果主词当中的数个名词是以and衔接,一律将主词视为复数。

She and I run every day.(她和我,复数主词衔接复数动词)

Peanut butter and jelly is my favorite sandwich.(主词的原意是单数,衔接单数动词)

2. 如果主词当中的数个名词是以or衔接,动词一律根据最后一个名词做变化。

She or I run every day.

Potatoes, pasta, or rice pairs well with grilled chicken.

3. 集合名词(例如team、couple、staff)可搭配单数或复数动词,端看作者欲强调主词的个别性或整体性。

The baseball team is practicing night and day for the final game.

The entire staff has done a great job this year.

4. 连接词(例如combined with、coupled with、accompanied by、added to、along with、together with、as well as)不会改变主词的单复数特性,这些连接词通常会使用逗号隔开。

Oil, as well as gas, is a popular heating choice.

Peanut butter combined with bread and jelly is a tasty snack. (这里的peanut butter、bread、jelly是一个整体,指的是一整个三明治,因此不需要使用逗号隔开,动词依然是单数。)

5. 集合名词的片语(例如a bunch of、a group of、a set of)可搭配单数或复数动词,端看作者欲强调主词的个别性或整体性:

A group of boys were digging in my flower beds!

A set of 12 dishes is all you need for the dinner party.

6. Each搭配单数动词。

Each boy is excited about the meet; each is well prepared.

7. None若指单数名词,则搭配单数动词;若指复数名词,则搭配复数动词。

None of the peas are left on Sean's plate.

None of the book is reproducible without permission.

8. 碰到分数时,动词是搭配名词全体。

One-fourth of the books are gone.

One-fourth of the sand is white.

9. 碰到金额时,具体数字使用单数动词,不具体数字则用复数名词。

Within a year, $5 million was spent on building a new factory, and millions more were spent on training future factory workers.

10. 片语more than one搭配单数动词(这确实听起来不合逻辑,但切记:无论one后方是否出现承接的名词,one后方一定接著名词)

More than one box is sitting in the hallway.

More than one is sitting in the hallway.

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