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关于“双重否定”:有哪些常见的句型修改意见?

Dueduedue官方博客2017-10-09文书修改 629 0A+A-

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双重否定(double negatives, 例: not + nobody, no one, never, etc.) 是文法上的明显错误,而且因为只要有否定或负面的词在同一句里面,就构成双重否定句,因此有许多不同的型态。先举其中一个例子,让你读看看。

× It’s not that we’re ungrateful for all that you’ve done for us. It’s just that without additional funds, and unless we have no fewer than five people to work on this project, it might be impossible for us to meet the deadline.

如果你成功理解了,恭喜你拥有千回百折的思考能力,但这不代表你愿意耐心读完这样子的文章,就如同大多数的读者,没有人愿意读得这么辛苦。假设有一篇频繁使用双重否定的论文,我们可以猜想读者除了必须不停负负正负进行破译,同时再加上许多专业术语,难理解的程度不可言喻。

为了改善这情况,我们可以怎么做呢? 我们先改写上面的例句,给你看一次:

 √ We’re thankful for all that you’ve done for us, but we would need at least five people and additional funds to meet the deadline.

一目了然的内容,意思保留,然而读起来是不是清晰明朗多了呢?

双重否定容易让人理解错误,而且负负得正,干嘛不写正就好了呢? 你写得轻松大家也读得轻松。

然而,可能偶尔会想要利用双重否定来做强调,其实也不是不行,只是要控制使用的频率。

降低双重否定的使用频率,提升可读性

怎么改写才可以降低双重否定的使用呢? 来看看以下的方法

1. 避免使用包含no或not的句型,尤其是指”量”的时候

改写负变正

  • No fewer than → at least

  • No more than → at most

2. 避免no/not + 负面副词,像是hardly和scarcely

把 no或not 放在负面副词前面的时候,负负得正,因此结果是正的,但这种情况下大部分人想表示的其实是负。

删除no/not或负面副词来保有原有的负面意思

情况一

  • not hardly → hardly [e.g., "I can't hardly wait" → "I can't wait" or "I can hardly wait."]

  • not scarcely → scarcely

  • not only (except when using “not only…but also” construction) → only

情况二

scarcely…no/not → scarcely [e.g. "I scarcely had no time to..." → "I scarcely had time to..." or "I had no time to"]

hardly… no/not   → hardly

3. 避免no/not + 负面字首的字像是un-, mis-, in-, and non-

使用反义词

  • No misunderstanding → understanding

  • Not illegal → legal

  • Not unnecessary → necessary

[笔记: not + un- 可以用来强调重点,也可以额外多加上一层意义,而这个意义可能在改写句型时改变。 例如:"The girl has many ideas that seem radical but not unintelligent," 意指这个女生的想法,以一般判断聪颖的标准来说,太过奇怪或极端,但不得不承认的是她的想法还是有深度的]

4. 避免no/not跟其他有负面意思的字在一起,像是absence, without, fail, terminate, void

修改这一类的句型,可能需要改写整个句子

No additional work is needed in the absence of an emergency. → Additional work is only required in an emergency.

If you fail to respond by tomorrow, we cannot continue the project.  → We will continue the project only if you respond by tomorrow.

5. 避免no/not + until

一般都可以用only替换

No research has been conducted on Jupiter’s atmospheric composition until recently. → Research on Jupiter’s atmospheric composition only began recently.

6. 避免 no/not + unless

一般都可以用only + if 替换

I will not go to the market unless I have to.  → I will only go to the market if necessary.

7. 不要写例外中的例外,像是 except + unless

改写可能需要拆解句子为两句以上

For your college admissions essay, you can write about anything except potentially offensive topics unless you focus on how you overcame an obstacle. → For your college admissions essay, you can write about anything. If you choose to write about a potentially offensive topic, focus solely on how you overcame the obstacle.

8. 避免not + but for.

一般可用only替换

I am not crazy about the movie but for its aesthetic elements. → I only like the movie’s aesthetic elements.

写英语的时候,很难同时顾及到所有层面,希望这八个方法能帮你快速抓出一些令人混淆的句子!

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