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如何按照规定使用on the basis of与based on?

Dueduedue官方博客2017-11-15paper代写 464 0A+A-

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片语based on和on the basis of经常被交互使用,然而,这是不正确的。因为based on是分词(口语形容词),用来定义名词、代名词和名词片语而非动词,on the basis of才是用来定义动词的介词片语。当based on 

用作被动态时,具有动词或形容词的功用,可修饰名词或代名词(通常紧接在片语前)。

例句:

  • This conclusion is based on four years of experience.

  • Conclusions based on experience may still require testing.

若要修饰动词,请使用其他的片语,如on the basis of。

1. 错误:

Based on

the first four years of results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

正确:

On the basis of

our results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

2.错误:

The administration sent a document on the basis of your suggestion.

正确:

The administration sent a document based on your suggestion.

在例句二的正确写法中,based on被用来形容与该片语最近的名词a document,读者进而能够了解,句中的「你」和该文件有关。而使用on the basis of来形容动词to send则说明了,是「你」提出寄送文件的主意。简单来说,当要表达according 

to(根据)的时候,我们可以使用on the basis of,而当想表达has a foundation in/has resulted from(基于/由于)的意思时,使用based on。

例句:

On the basis of the data obtained from randomized controlled trials, cognitive–behavioral therapy is the preferred treatment and is based on changing the emotional and psychological associations with sleeping that interfere with proper sleep.

被动式动词后的

  • ased on

例句:

The experiments were designed based on our previous results.

此例句的作者或许希望以分词based on 来形容动词,但却无法如愿,因为based on 只能修饰与其最接近的名词(experiments);但是,实验的根据是来自过去的研究结果吗?

如果您希望强调实验的设计(即动词),便需使用介词片语on the basis of:

The experiments were designed on the basis of our previous results.

然而,如果您想要强调实验且希望保留片语based on,便需加入名词让它来定义。在此,与原先动词相关的名词design 是最适合的:

  • The design of the experiments was based on our previous results.

  • The experimental design was based on our previous results.

不正确的相关字

Based on 时常用于引介名词,但在正式的句法中,based on 却不宜与名词相连。也就是说,这会形成悬吊分词的例子。

例句:

Based on the MALDI–TOF results, testicular proteins were given a unified nomenclature.

位置上最接近且可被分词补充的名词为testicular proteins(睪丸蛋白)。然而,此句型却传递了错误的讯息:MALDI–TOF的结果是睪丸蛋白的根据;实际上,此句要说明的是,睪丸蛋白的命名依据来自于这些结果。这是个很容易改正的错误,改用介词片语来定义动词即可:

On the basis of the MALDI–TOF results, testicular proteins were given a unified nomenclature.

例句:

Based on these criteria, the abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

此句中,based on 补充了说明最靠近的名词abstract,但却误将句意传达为:这些准则是摘要的根基。实际上,这些准则是用来帮摘要排名的工具。使用可定义动词的介词片语即可修正此情形:

On the basis of these criteria, the abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

若要以较简短的方法传达相同的意思,可舍弃介词片语,直接使用介词:

From these criteria, abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

例句:

  • Based on

  • the results, we concluded that the drugs are equally effective.

这些研究结果是什么的根基?隐含主词:conclusion;语法主词:we。

修正

1:On the basis of the results, we concluded that the drugs are equally effective.

修正

2:We concluded from the results that the drugs are equally effective.

修正

3 :Based on

  • the results, our conclusion is that the drugs are equally effective.

  • Based on 与on the basis of 的差异对学术期刊来说重要吗?以下是来自学术写作格式规范以及期刊的例子。

ACS 格式

片语based on 仅用于修饰名词而非动词。用于句首或修饰动词时请改用on the basis of。例如:请用the results based on Smith's theory . . . 而非Based on Smith's theory, we found . . . 。

http://publications.agu.org/files/2012/12/AGU_grammar_style.pdf

Conservation Biology

作者投稿须知

请将based on 当作动词使用。作为副词时,请使用on the basis of。

动词形式:We based identification of reserves on the number of species in each unit.

错误:We identified reserves based on the number of species in each unit.

副词形式:The solutions were compared on the basis of financial constraints.

错误:The solutions were compared based on financial constraints.

http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileyblackwell/images/alltherules_7_VII_2009_2_2.pdf

美国农艺学会(American Society of Agronomy )

出版与格式手册(Publications Handbook and Style Manual )

Based on在被动形式时,具有动词(We based our conclusions on four years of experience)或形容词的功用,可修饰名词或代名词(通常紧接在片语前)。

  • This conclusion is based on four years of experience.

  • Conclusions based on experience may still require testing.

修饰动词时,请使用其他的片语结构,如on the basis of。

错误:Based on the first four years of results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

正确:On the basis of our results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/files/publications/style/chapter-02.pdf

Journal of Participatory Medicine

意思为according to(根据)时,请使用on the basis of;当意思为has a foundation in/has resulted from(基于/由于)时,请使用based on。

On the basis of data from randomized controlled trials, cognitive-behavioral therapy is the preferred treatment and is based on changing the emotional and psychological associations with sleeping that interfere with proper sleep.

http://www.jopm.org/styleguide/

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