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Paper代写:哪些单词经常会用错?

Dueduedue官方博客2017-11-17paper代写 504 0A+A-

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在Paper写作时,我们发现许多常被误用的单字。以下列出几个常见的例子,并说明该单字的正确用法:

Anticipate vs Expect (预期 vs 期望)

Anticipate的意思是预见某事即将发生,并在事前做好充分准备。在此情况下,anticipate(预期)的意思与estimate(估计)、expect(期望)、presume(推测)或predict(预言)不同。例如,「expecting business to pick up」和「anticipating business will pick up」的意思不同。原因是,使用anticipate意味着,店家为了解决问题已有所因应,像是准备了更多存货,或者雇用更多员工;若使用expect则表示店家期盼生意好转,但是没有做任何因应的动作。

范例:

  • We anticipate a cold winter so we are buying extra coats.

  • We expect he will arrive at 4:00 p.m.

  • Dilemma vs Problem (困境 vs 问题)

Dilemma的字首「di-」和diphthong(双元音)和diarchy(双头政治)的字首意思相同,都表示「二的、双的」。因此,dilemma不仅是指存在已久的问题或难题,而是面临两个选择时,进退两难的处境。

范例:

  • Choosing between the conventional approach and Chen’s approach presented us with a dilemma. (Two options)

  • The problem with the conventional approach is…. (We are not told how many options we have.)

  • Plethora vs Abundance (过多 vs 丰富)

Plethora是指某物过多的状况,而非只是丰富、充足。这个字源自希腊文full(充满),因此只能用来描述某物的数量超过所需或可处理范围的情形。

范例:

  • He was overwhelmed by the plethora of forms he had to fill out. (Too much – often negative)

  • The famer had an abundant harvest of carrots. (More than expected – positive)

  • Refute vs Reject (驳斥 vs 驳回)

Refute的意思是驳斥、反驳,这个字并不是单纯的否定或驳回,而是进一步的以证据证明某事无效或错误。

范例:

  • The reviewer provided evidence that refuted the author’s claims. (Proved it wrong)

  • The editor rejected the paper. (Said no)

  • Stalemate vs Deadlock (和局 vs 僵局)

对弈发生stalemate(和局)时,棋局便会结束。因此,若要使用stalemate来比喻某件事,只能用来描述会使某事结束的情况,例如:「It ended in a stalemate」(这件事以和局收场)。这个字跟impasse(死路)、bottleneck(瓶颈)或deadlock(僵局)不同,因为这些字都是指暂时且可解决的阻碍,并非永久结束的状态。

范例:

  • The discussion of the proposal ended in a stalemate and the participants went home without a resolution. (The discussion of the proposal was stopped forever.)

  • The discussion of the proposal reached a deadlock before a compromise was found. (The discussion of the proposal stalled and then got started again and agreement was finally reached.)

  • Travesty vs Tragedy (扭曲 vs 悲剧)

Travesty容易和tragedy搞混,因此常被误用来形容不好的事物。原先travesty意指装扮或伪装某人,使之成为受嘲笑的对象或者用以嘲讽他人。因此,travesty延伸的意思是以古怪荒诞的方式扭曲某事物。例如,「travesty of justice」就是指真实的正义受到扭曲而变得荒谬颠倒,并非只是不好的结果。

范例:

  • The judge’s decision is a travesty. (Ridiculous and terrible)

  • The car accident was a tragedy. (Terrible and causing grief)

  • Invariably vs Often (不变地 vs 时常)

Invariably形容某事「总是」发生,而非只是「经常」发生。因此,形容某人「invariably good at their job」,意思就是他们在工作的每一刻都表现良好。

范例:

  • The sun invariably rises each morning. (Without exceptions)

  • He often takes a walk before breakfast. (Usually, but not always)

  • Collude vs Collaborate (共谋 vs 合作)

Collude只能用在整体上具负面含意的情况,它的意思是plot(密谋)或conspire(同谋),而非只是collaborate(合作)。

范例:

  • The government officials colluded with the company president to reduce the company’s taxes. (They plotted – negative and often illegal)

  • The scholars collaborated on their research. (They shared ideas – usually positive)

  • Ultimately vs Consequently (最终 vs 因此)

Ultimately和consequently并非同义字。重点要记住,ultimate是形容顺序上的最后一项。因此,如果某事「ultimately happens」,意思就是这件事在过了很长一段时间或时机成熟时发生了。若某事「consequently happens」,它是指涉因另一件事所造成的结果。

范例:

  • Ultimately , his proposal was accepted. (In the end)

  • He was fired from his job. Consequently, he posted his resume online. (As a result)

  • Peruse vs Glance (细读 vs 扫视)

Peruse真正的意思是仔细阅读,与study(研读)和pore(熟读)同义,而非指skim(浏览)或glance over(略读)。举例来说,「peruse the magazines when you’re in a doctor’s waiting room」(某人在候诊室阅读杂志),这种情境句我们会建议使用glance over或skim来取代peruse。

范例:

  • He perused the research article carefully.

  • He glanced at the clock.

  • Disinterested vs Uninterested (公正无私 vs 漠不关心)

若用disinterested来形容某人,表示他对于某事并没有利害关系且没有涉及某事,因此可以保持完全客观公正的态度。如果用uninterested来形容某人,那么他只是对那件事不怎么感兴趣,而表现出漠不关心的样子。

范例:

  • The judge was unbiased and disinterested in the outcome of the case.

  • The students were uninterested in finishing their homework.

  • Enormity vs Enormous (穷凶恶极 vs 巨大的)

Enormity容易与enormous(巨大的)混淆,因此常常被当作sizableness(庞大)或immensity(广大)的同义字,但是这个用法并不正确。 Enormity指坏事的可怕,只能用在负面的情况。因此,我们可以说「the enormity of a person’s crime」(某人罪大恶极),但不可以说「the enormity of the crowd at a music festival」(音乐节的人潮众多)。

范例:

  • He realized enormity of the situation. (He realized how terrible the situation was)

  • He farmer grew an enormous pumpkin. (It was very big)

  • Effectively vs Basically (有效 vs 基本上)

Effectively意思是「to good effect」(达到良效),而不是「in effect」(实际上),因此使用上不应与basically(基本上)同义。所以,当有人说「Jaws 2 effectively repeated the first film」,他的意思是〈大白鲨2〉制作成功、效果良好,暗示这是一部好电影。

范例:

  • He effectively managed his department. (He managed well)

  • Basically , I agree with you. (I agree with the majority of what you say except for a few details)

  • Venerable vs Old ( 令人敬佩的 vs 年老的)

  • Venerable不只是用来形容old(年老、老旧的)或ancient(古老的),而是指值得尊敬或尊重的。

范例:

  • The venerable old building stood at the end of the street. (Old, respected and with a rich history)

  • The old man crossed the street. (He’s just old)

  • Fortuitous vs Fortunate (偶然的 vs 幸运的)

Fortuitous和fortunate并不是同义字,前者是指「偶然的发生」,而后者是指「幸运的发生」。所以,「bumping into someone fortuitously」(偶然地遇到某人)可能是好事,也可能是坏事;但是「bumping into them fortunately」(幸运地遇到某人)指的一定是好事。

范例:

  • A fortuitous event brought them together. (By chance)

  • Fortunately , they brou

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