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The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. 

Identify correct format and style for your paper 论文书写格式与风格

Every academic writer hopes to have a paper published and widely read within the academic community. While that is a reasonable hope, it can be a distracting one during a paper's planning and composition. A paper need satisfy just one reader for success: the classroom instructor who assigned the paper. Failure to pass the muster of that professor precludes broader acceptance.


In terms of format and style, this is not as arbitrary as it sounds. The mechanical presentation of a paper is governed largely by universal sets of rules. Individual professors can, and do, slightly tweak the rules to satisfy professional preferences. However, the common rules work to the advantage of all writers by giving to each a uniform structure for presentation of material.


So at the outset, the author of a paper must be certain about what format or style is required—not suggested—by the assigning professor. If the class instructor glances at a submitted paper and returns it to the author, it is certain the author has failed to follow a professor's formatting and stylistic instructions. Before content can be evaluated, presentation of the material is evaluated.


Several styles are used across academia. Some familiar ones include the Modern Language Association (MLA), which is popular in liberal arts and humanities writing; the Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago), which has more general usage; the American Psychological Association (APA ), for social sciences; and the Council of Science Editors (CSE), for scientific papers.

写作风格用于不同的学术领域。举例来说,学界所熟悉的「美国现代语言学会写作手册」(Modern Language Association ,MLA)在人文学科领域广泛采用;「芝加哥格式手册」(Chicago Manual of Style, Chicago)详述完整格式规范与细节;「美国心理学会写作手册」 (American Psychological Association, APA)是社会科学领域普遍采用的格式;「科学编辑委员会」(Council of Science Editors , CSE)主要用在科学领域。

The different styles can vary in their citation requirements and formatting. The writer of a paper must know which style is assigned. Example of differences: The MLA does not require a title page—but the professor might anyway; the APA generally requires a title page , which should be numbered 1; whereas in Chicago usage, if a title page is included, it should not be numbered 1.


In-text citations also vary. They range from MLA's strict use of authors' names and publication data in parenthesis to CSE's less complicated use of numbers that link to a reference section. From an academic writer's point of view, there is no best way to format and cite. There is only the required way, as assigned by an individual professor. Carefully heed such instructions.

引述与引用写法也各异。 MLA在引述作者与作品名称方面相当严谨;CSE强调参考文献数字需清楚明确标示等等。从论文作者的观点来看,没有完美的格式与写法,只有被课堂教授需求、要求的写法。作者们务必谨慎留心教授对文体格式的要求与期望。