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Research paper怎么写?职业【Paper代写】揭秘写作规范

Dueduedue官方博客2017-07-18paper代写 1564 0A+A-

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Dueduedue论文服务-【essay代写】【assignment代写】全球在线写作中心,研究报告的写作规范,也可作为实验报告写作参考。如下:

Title 标题

AIM: To clearly identify your research project

目标:明确你的研究课题

Objective: Be specific to your study

具体目标:特定于你的研究

Common Mistakes: General headings, or long and complex descriptions

常见错误:标题普通,或者描述冗长又复杂

Abstract 摘要

AIM: To summarise all aspects of your report in ~150 words

目标:在150字内总结你报告的所有方面。

Objective:

Briefly summarise information from each section of the report, including:

Area and aim of study

Experimental design , number of subjects

Main results (state the direction of the findings) and whether significant

Main aspects of discussion summarised

具体目标:

简要地从报告的每个部分总结信息,包括:

研究的范围和目的

实验设计,实验观察例数

主要结果(描述调查结果的趋势)以及是否有意义

总结讨论的主要问题

Common Mistakes:

Not written as a coherent section

Biased (unbalanced) summary of the sections ie too much procedure/detailed description of own study

Not written in the order of the report

Too long

Not a single paragraph

Vague and uninformative

常见错误:

写作不连贯

自己实验的部分总结有偏颇(不平衡),即有过多的程序/细节描述。

没有按照报告的顺序来写

太长

不是独立段落

模糊和无信息

Introduction 介绍

AIM: To provide the reader with necessary background theory and research to outline your research question and explain your study

目标:提供给读者必要的背景理论和研究来概述你的研究问题并解释

Objective:

Outline the topic area

Clearly define relevant theory

Provide a detailed literature review of main theories and major empirical work in the area

Must cite relevant works: Distance – Hayes et al (I986); Ojanpaa & Nasenen (2003); Culture – Caparos et al (2012), Davidoff et al (2008)

Provide a clear justification for why the experiment was run:

Clearly state the hypotheses

具体目标:

概述主题范围

明确定义相关理论

提供主要理论的详细文献综述和此领域的主要实证工作

必须列举相关作品:(举例)

提供明确的理由说明实验为何如此进行

明确陈述假设内容

Common Mistakes:

Review of relevant literature is not adequately extensive

Largely summary of Lab Talk

General statements with little supporting evidence

Review is poorly referenced

Description of own study only

General hypothesis (e.g. the lV will affect the DV)

Hypothesis not written as a paragraph but as a list or as a new section. Should not be bullet-pointed.

常见错误:

对相关文献的综述不够广泛

对实验讲座的大概总结

综述的证据很少

文献引用不当

只有对自己实验的描述

假设非常常见

假设不是作为单独的段落而是作为一份列表或新的一个部分。不能用项目符号标注。

Method 方法

AIM: To clearly report how your study was conducted — the reader should be able to replicate your research from the details provided

目标:明确地报告实验是如何进行的 – 读者应该能够从提供的详细信息复制你的研究

Objective:

This section should be correctly structured into appropriate sub-headings:

Design—Have you clearly defined your variables?

Participants – How many, who were they?

Materials/stimuli

Computer, Software, Stimulus

Procedure – report the task instructions, how participants responded. Have you detailed:

How participants conducted experiment

Summarised instructions

How did they record their answers?

How long did it take approximately?

具体目标:

这部分应该被正确地整理成相应的子标题:

实验设计——是否明确定义了变量

参与者——几个人?他们是谁?

材料/促进因素

电脑、软件、促进物

程序——记录实验任务分配, 参与者们如何响应。是否详细描述:

参与者们如何进行实验

实验过程概述

如何记录答案

实验大概用了多长时间

Common Mistakes:

Appropriate sub-headings not used

Information is mixed up and provided under incorrect sub-headings or repeated

e.g. Procedure is detailed in the Design

e.g. Design or Stimuli is in the Procedure

Design is unspecified

Materials poorly described

Procedure — report the experimental procedure not the lab procedure

Experimental procedure lacking in detail

常见错误:

没有使用适当的小标题

信息混在一起,小标题错误

未详细说明实验设计

材料没有详细描述

程序——记录实验步骤而不是实验过程

实验步骤缺乏细节

Results 结果

AIM: To describe your summary and analysis of the data in relation to the hypothesis

目标:描述关于假设的概述和数据分析

Objectives:

This should include for each hypothesis in turn:

Hypothesis at the start

Clearly stated and consistent with that at end of intro.

Data is summarised and explained using appropriate descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) in the text

Include bar graph with error bars

State whether your means are consistent with your hypothesis (or not)

Provide the appropriate inferential statistic (necessary for acceptance/rejection of hypothesis)

State which test you are using

State which means your test is comparing (e.g. mean HSF response percentage)

Report results correctly for each hypothesis, e.g. F(L76) = 22.96, p<0.05, eta = 0.2

Provide pairwise comparison summary

Re-state the hypothesis in terms of your findings at the end

具体目标:

应当依次包含每个假设:

一开始的假设

明确阐述并与介绍结尾的假设保持一致

概括数据并使用适当的描述性统计(平均值、标准差)来解释它

包括柱状图和误差线

说明平均值是否与假设一致

提出合适的推理统计(对假设的接受/否定很有必要)

说明使用了何种测试

说明你的测试结果和什么作比较

准确记录每个假设的结果

提供成对比较的概述

在最后依据实验结果重新提出假设

Common Mistakes:

Poorly written — lack of text or not written as a coherent section; bullet points.

Raw data/ calculations included

Do not report individual subject data or lab data

Do not present histograms checking for normality – part of the lab, not report.

Tables/graphs used in place of text

Graphs/tables are not correctly titled or labelled

Error bars are not correctly displayed on the graphs

Descriptive statistics nor provided or lacking.

Do not import tables/graphs from statistical packages

F-tests reported in a table — only report in the text

Do not explain how your descriptive/inferential statistics were calculated

Do not discuss theoretical inferences and implications of your results

Pairwise comparisons misinterpreted or not presented.

常见错误:

写得不好——缺少文字或写作不连贯;项目符号

包括原始数据和计算

不要报告主观数据或化验数据

不要出现常态直方图检查——这是实验而不是报告的一部分

图表代替文本出现

图表的标题或标签错误

图表中误差线没有正确显示

缺乏描述性统计

不要从统计软件包里导入图表

不要解释你是如何描述/推断统计计算的

不要讨论结果的理论推断或蕴含的意义

成对比较被错误解读或未提供

Discussion 讨论

AIM: Theoretical discussion of research findings. This should focus on your study.

目标:对研究发现的理论探讨。这应当专注于你的研究。

Objectives:

Re-state your results and whether your hypotheses were supported – briefly

Theoretical implications – you should have demonstrated an understanding of the experiment and consider the implications of your findings

Relate your results to previous research: state how your findings compare/contrast with findings of other research

Assess the validity of your research — are there any confounding variables/design problems?

Future research — you should have adequately discussed the scope and limitations of your study, and suggested questions that should be considered in future research, providing a relevant citation.

具体目标:

简洁地再次说明你的结果以及你的假设是否得到了支持。

理论启示——你应当已经证明了关于实验的一种理解并考虑你的发现的影响

将你的结果与之前的研究相关联:说明你的发现如何与其他研究发现相比/相对照。

评估你的研究的正确性——是否有任何混杂变量/设计失误?

将来的研究——你应当已经充分讨论了你的研究的范围和限制,并提出在将来的研究中需要考虑到的问题,提供相关文献。

Common Mistakes:

Results summary should be in text — don’t repeat your means/values

Poor theoretical discussion — current results are not fully explained and discussion is largely about problems with the experiment or possible future studies.

Current results are not interpreted in terms of theoretical models and previous research

Avoid generic criticisms (e.g. more data, fewer students etc.)

Future research questions are poorly (if at all) justified – no citation. ‘

Lengthy discussion of previous research/competing theories which is not informed by the current study

常见错误:

结果概要应当用文字描述——不要重复你的方法/数值

缺少理论探讨——当前的结果没有被充分解释,讨论内容大部分是关于实验中出现的问题和将来可能的研究。

没有依据理论模型和以前的研究来解释当前结果

避开了常见的争议

将来的研究问题没有被充分说明——没有引用文献

关于以前研究/竞争性理论的冗长讨论,和当前研究关系不大

References 参考文献

AIM: To credit original research; to direct reader to original source

目标:信任原创性研究,将读者导向原始来源

Objectives:All evidence mentioned in the text should be correctly referenced (name, date of research)

具体目标:在文本中提到的所有证据都应当被正确引用(名字,时间,研究内容)

Common Mistakes:

Researchers / dates not stated in the text (e.g. general statements, ‘research suggests…)

Reference section not in alphabetical order

Minor errors in formatting

常见错误:

研究者/时间没有在文本中标注

参考书目没有按字母顺序排列

格式错误

总结

Overall Comments:

Throughout the research report, you are assessed according to these learning outcomes:

Quality of the research carried out (both literature search and practical research skills)

There is evidence of extensive research and breadth of reading.

Level of knowledge, comprehension and evaluation of the topic:

You have clearly understood the purpose and implications of the study.

Quality of the academic communication:

It is clearly written, well-structured, in own words, lacking quotes, and professionally presented

There are grammatical and spelling errors.

总结:

贯穿实验报告始末,你将会被根据这些学习效果进行评估:

研究开展的质量(包括文献检索和实践探索的技能)

可以说明研究广度和阅读深度

知识水平,对研究主题的理解和评价:

你已经清楚理解了研究的和意义

学术交流的质量:

实验报告写作清晰,结构良好,使用自己的语言,缺少引用,体现专业性

有语法和拼写错误

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