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英语论文代写:如何使用【恰当动词】来引述来源?

Dueduedue官方博客2017-12-08paper代写 573 0A+A-

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英语论文写作时,当要引述文献的资料来源时,要如何选择适当的动词呢?是否有特定的文法形式需要遵循呢?有时候,受限于动词字汇了解不多,常会在每句中都使用「studied」或是「said」,是否有其它恰当的动词可以使用呢?

回答: 

藉由选择特定动词来引用资料来源,您可以表明自己对于引用资料来源的态度。切勿不断重复「Smith说」,英文里有许多与像「说」这样的动词可供选择。利用字典来检视您选择使用的动词,看看是否与您所想表达的意义有细微的差异。

关于如何使用「引述动词」,这里有一些文法句型可供参考模仿:

句型1:reporting verb 引述动词+ that + subject 主词+ verb 动词

  • acknowledgeadmitagreeallegeargue

  • assertassumebelieveclaimconclude

  • considerdecidedemonstratedenydetermine

  • discoverdoubtemphasizeexplainfind

  • hypothesizeimplyindicateinfernote

  • objectobservepoint outprovereveal

  • sayshowstatesuggestthink

  1. Smith argued that X influences Y.

  2. Previous researchers have implied that the procedure is harmful.

  3. Smith found that X's are improved by class factors.

  4. Lee inferred that both states are vital.

请注意这些动词的意义都不相同,并且不能互相替换使用。举例来说,例句(a)的动词argue,表明您判断作者的结论是根据证据及推理而来,但仍有其他可能的结论。例句(b)的动词imply,表明您判断研究者的证据及推理相当具有说服力,因此没有其他可能的结论。  

小心使用动词discuss或express与that 连接的用法,请参考下列的例子。

错误:The reviewer expressed that the movie is not worth seeing.

正确:The reviewer expressed the view that the movie is not worth seeing.

注意:这个类别的动词也可能出现于以As为开头的从属子句。    

a. As Smith demonstrated , errors made by previous researchers need to be corrected.      

b. As researchers have shown , the procedure is harmful.  

句型2:reporting verb 引述动词+ somebody/something 某人/ 某事+   for + noun/gerund 名词/ 动名词

  • applaudblamecensurecriticizedisparage

  • faultpraiseridiculesingle outthank

  1. Smith criticized Jones for his use of incomplete data (OR for using incomplete data).

  2. Both Smith and Jones condemned previous researchers for misrepresenting the data.

  3. Lee acknowledged Thomas for his contribution to the discovery of X.

句型3:reporting verb 引述动词+ somebody/something 某人/ 某事  + as + noun/gerund/adjective 名词/ 动名词形容词

  • appraiseassesscharacterizeclassclassify

  • definedepictdescribeevaluateidentify

  • interpretportraypresentreferview

  1. Jones described the findings as adding to the existing body of research.

  2. Smith identified the Y as a source of information.

  3. Smith and Jones both presented their results as conclusive.

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