The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not.
Give full credit to sources and avoid plagiarism正确引用出处，避免抄袭之嫌
When a writer submits an academic paper, there should be no question about the submitter being the author of it. Even if the paper is, say, uncharacteristically refined in its approach, or astonishingly thorough in its research, the writer's integrity should not be doubted . Yet only one person can ensure that such suspicions do not develop: the person whose name is on the paper.
We are talking here about the “P” word—plagiarism. A person who plagiarizes commits literary theft. The Council of Writing Administrators—an American association of university faculty—says plagiarism occurs when, “in instructional settings… a writer deliberately uses someone else's language, ideas, or other original… material without acknowledg¬ing its source.”
在此说明 plagiarism 抄袭。抄袭他人的作品就是盗窃。写作协会—由美国大学教授组成—的抄袭定义为：在教学环境中，抄袭就是蓄意使用他人的语言、想法、或其他原创思想等等，却未注明出处。
Stolen in this way are ideas still in the abstract, or words concretely arranged in a uniquely identifiable way and particular context. When they are lifted without credit being given, they no longer qualify as fruits of original scholarship. Rather, they are the detritus of an intellectual crime. Their cribbed presence in a paper is unforgivable evidence that corners were cut.
How can a writer avoid becoming a plagiarist? Resolve not to steal. Yes, it is that elementary. Deliberate theft is a conscious act. There is no mistake involved. Therefore, thievery is not a problem if it is eschewed as a matter of individual character. Academic pressure is no excuse for submitting another person's work as one's own. When that happens, it is a failure of character.
A less insidious but still serious indictment of a writer is commission of inadvertent plagiarism. This happens when the language of a source is submerged in a writer's mind and transferred accidentally to a paper. Or when an idea becomes buried in research and its source forgotten when it is unearthed in the course of writing. Or it can be as simple as overlooking a citation.
In other words, careless work also can bring charges of plagiarism. While less incriminating than outright theft, academic sloppiness is not a shiny credential. A serious academic writer will strictly avoid willful and accidental plagiarism by painstakingly attributing the work of others, personally committing to original research and non-adaptive thinking—and refusing to steal.