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如何正确引用出处,避免抄袭之嫌?

Dueduedue官方博客2018-03-07paper代写 527 0A+A-

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教授学者们通常会规范写作标准,制定如何撰写硕博士论文学术文章以及格式要求。学术界所评定的标准植基于以何种撰写方式会被认可,何种撰写方式则会被拒绝。

The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not. 

Give full credit to sources and avoid plagiarism正确引用出处,避免抄袭之嫌

When a writer submits an academic paper, there should be no question about the submitter being the author of it. Even if the paper is, say, uncharacteristically refined in its approach, or astonishingly thorough in its research, the writer's integrity should not be doubted . Yet only one person can ensure that such suspicions do not develop: the person whose name is on the paper.

学术论文的作者发表文章后,绝不容许被人质疑投稿者是否为原作者。即便这篇文章文笔非常成熟精炼、研究成果极其深入完整,作者本人的诚信都不应遭受怀疑。不过,能够完全避免这种质疑的人只有一个:作者本人。

We are talking here about the “P” word—plagiarism. A person who plagiarizes commits literary theft. The Council of Writing Administrators—an American association of university faculty—says plagiarism occurs when, “in instructional settings… a writer deliberately uses someone else's language, ideas, or other original… material without acknowledg¬ing its source.”

在此说明 plagiarism 抄袭。抄袭他人的作品就是盗窃。写作协会—由美国大学教授组成—的抄袭定义为:在教学环境中,抄袭就是蓄意使用他人的语言、想法、或其他原创思想等等,却未注明出处。

Stolen in this way are ideas still in the abstract, or words concretely arranged in a uniquely identifiable way and particular context. When they are lifted without credit being given, they no longer qualify as fruits of original scholarship. Rather, they are the detritus of an intellectual crime. Their cribbed presence in a paper is unforgivable evidence that corners were cut.

被盗用的举凡非具体的想法,或是以各种独特、可辨识的方式所具体陈述的内容等等。如果使用这些资料时不注明出处,你的论文作品就称不上原创,只是智慧犯罪后的残迹。在文章里夹带这些资讯,便是作者投机取巧下不可抹灭的证据。

How can a writer avoid becoming a plagiarist? Resolve not to steal. Yes, it is that elementary. Deliberate theft is a conscious act. There is no mistake involved. Therefore, thievery is not a problem if it is eschewed as a matter of individual character. Academic pressure is no excuse for submitting another person's work as one's own. When that happens, it is a failure of character.

作者如何才能避免抄袭?只要下定决心不偷窃即可。没错,就是这么简单。蓄意偷窃是有意识的行为,没有辩解的机会。只要体认到偷窃攸关个人品德,应能制止抄袭发生。学术压力不能作为剽窃他人作品的辩解,会发生这种事就是代表个人操守有问题。

A less insidious but still serious indictment of a writer is commission of inadvertent plagiarism. This happens when the language of a source is submerged in a writer's mind and transferred accidentally to a paper. Or when an idea becomes buried in research and its source forgotten when it is unearthed in the course of writing. Or it can be as simple as overlooking a citation.

另外一个状况不那么罪不可赦,不过仍是相当严重的指控,那就是无意间的抄袭。会发生这种情形可能是某些观念已深植作者心中,使他一时不慎写进自己的文章;或者该想法原是众多研究之一,只是作者在写作过程中忘了它的出处;又或许,作者纯粹只是漏了注明出处。

In other words, careless work also can bring charges of plagiarism. While less incriminating than outright theft, academic sloppiness is not a shiny credential. A serious academic writer will strictly avoid willful and accidental plagiarism by painstakingly attributing the work of others, personally committing to original research and non-adaptive thinking—and refusing to steal.

换句话说,写作时漫不经心也会招致抄袭的指控。尽管不像直接剽窃一样严重,行文马虎的研究内容,对学术作者的声誉依然没有好处。严谨的学术论文作者会严以律己,引用他人作品时一丝不苟地注明清楚,致力于原创性的研究与严谨的思考方式,并拒绝剽窃—完全杜绝刻意或无意间的抄袭。

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