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权威代写:如何善用注脚、附注、参考文献?

Dueduedue官方博客2018-03-06paper代写 580 0A+A-

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教授学者们通常会规范写作标准,制定如何撰写硕博士论文学术文章以及格式要求。学术界所评定的标准植基于以何种撰写方式会被认可,何种撰写方式则会被拒绝。

The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not. 

Creating acceptable footnotes, endnotes, references and bibliographies 善用注脚、附注、参考文献以及书目

The paper is written! Take a bow. A break is deserved after all the work of researching, outlining, and writing a scholarly composition. However, even though pre-writing and writing stages of the paper are complete, the post-writing phase is just beginning. Like the finishing stage of any creative work, post-writing can, through carelessness, spoil all that preceded it.

论文终于写完了!准备好下台一鞠躬吧。经过学术写作过程中不断研究、确立方向、撰写论文之后,你的确该给自己放个大假!然而,论文的前置准备与写作阶段虽然结束,最后收尾的重头戏才正要开始。就像所有创作一样,若瞻前不顾后、虎头蛇尾,草率收尾的结果,将会抹煞之前所有努力。

Several final-stage tasks must be satisfactorily undertaken if a paper is to win acceptance. The first of these is the formal attribution of source material to authors and other purveyors. Full credit is given to discoverers of truth, or anyone else whose earlier work enhances a paper, through sequential annotations. These include footnotes, endnotes and bibliographies.

学术写作的最后阶段亦肩负着重要任务,撰写得宜论文才有机会被采用。论文中必须注明所引述资料的作者资讯与来源。对过去学术成就的事实探索以及历来具权威性的学术论点,应全数囊括于注解之中,注解的类别包括注脚、附注与书目。

Before beginning writing, a writer should have determined the format required by the assigning professor, eg Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), or Chicago Style. While several styles are acceptable, they differ in their details. Whichever style is assigned, a writer is expected to work consistently within its framework.

作者于正式开始写作前,应已先确知指导教授要求的写作格式,如MLA、APA或Chicago等等。学术界已有数种写作格式广为各方学者所使用,主要差别在于各个格式着重的细节不尽相同。不论指定何种格式,作者应依教授要求而保持格式一致。

Each format explains how a writer is to signal the presence of related information in a secondary location. The signaling methods vary. A notation might be parenthetical, or a subscript, or a superscript, and might direct a reader to a footnote, or an endnote . These and other variables in annotation style have to be mastered to avoid confusing a reader or frustrating a professor.

不论选用任何格式,都必须明确记录作者引用他处的所有资讯。引用的技巧包括,使用引号、利用下标与上标、以及注明注脚或注解等等。作者应熟习不同引用格式的技巧,才能让读者与教授不致于感到混淆。

Bibliographical citations also are tightly structured. For example, while an endnote generally is one sentence long, a bibliographical entry often is expected to be three sentences. Furthermore, the familiar Latin abbreviation “ibid”—used to represent a citation identical to one preceding it —no longer is universally acceptable. Familiarity with usages and formats is a key to success.

书目引用方式亦有其严格规范。例如,注解通常仅有一句,而书目条列则往往长达三句之多。除此之外,过去常用的拉丁缩写ibid—意思是该条资料来源与上一条完全一致—现在已不复使用。熟悉用法与格式,将是论文迈向成功的关键。

Tightly linking the content of a paper to cited and perused sources is a crucial task, but not a creative one. No imagination is needed. It is a mechanical overlay, a by-the-book consolidation of disparate references and sources that systematically unites the paper. An academic paper with regimented citations earns the paper authority and earns its writer legitimacy as a scholar.

论文内容与参考来源的紧密连结非常重要。这不是创意性的工作,不需发挥想像力,只需一板一眼,专注于机械式的作业过程。也就是说,只需要有系统、有组织的将所有相关书籍的参考资料与来源列示明确即可。学术论文若能善用引用资料,并严谨明确列示清楚,则文章将更具权威性,可望立于学者的专业学术地位。

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权威paper代写
权威论文代写
权威essay代写
权威英语代写
权威英文代写
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