The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not.
Organize and group the material and outline the paper 分类资料并勾勒论文大纲
At this point, the author of an academic paper should have chosen a subject and thesis and thoroughly researched it. The author also should have determined what format is required for the paper by the assigning professor, and made certain that enough information has been gathered to satisfy citation requirements. Now it is time to create the structure of the paper.
An academic paper is built around the thesis. Every point made in the paper should support the argument voiced in the thesis. Every statement should be a brick in the argument's foundation. Every assertion should, directly or indirectly, lead the reader to the conclusion summarized in the thesis. (Conversely, if a point has the potential to lead a reader astray, it should be discarded.)
The collected material should be organized, a process that probably began during the collection stage. The material should be arranged by function—for example, introductory material near the top of the list. It also should be grouped according to sub-topic or supporting evidence . This grouping process will reveal any areas of argumentation that are weak and need more research.
Next comes the outlining of the paper. While the grouped material might suggest an outline, a set of facts can be employed in more than one way. A paper on Copernicus, for example, might chronologically relate his solar system studies, or it might juxtapose his various discoveries with the misconceptions of his peers. Facts are not malleable, but they are moveable.
A professor may suggest a structure for a paper, but usually only in general terms. The content of the paper, as a result of research, ultimately decides the most effective structure. This might be a narrative approach. Or it could be a side- by-side comparison, or a sequential presentation of evidence. In every case, the goal is to assemble the facts into a convincing final argument.
Before writing begins, purposefully evaluate the chosen outline. Ask questions. Does it function convincingly? Does it stay on course in support of the thesis? Is it logical and comprehendible? Does it sail from introduction to conclusion without running aground somewhere? Can it be strengthened by alteration, or addition? Be sure. The outline becomes the blueprint for the paper.