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paper代写:如何正式明确的表达?

Dueduedue官方博客2018-03-05paper代写 513 0A+A-

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教授学者们通常会规范写作标准,制定如何撰写硕博士论文学术文章以及格式要求。学术界所评定的标准植基于以何种撰写方式会被认可,何种撰写方式则会被拒绝。

The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not.

Wanted: Formal, unambiguous expression 写作要求-正式、明确的表达

This is the third tip devoted to language. To “precise word choice” and “appropriate voice” is added another writing consideration: tone. The word refers to the type or manner of expression required in academic papers. In a word, the tone is to be “formal.” Another word for it might be “professional,” in the sense that a writer conforms to a standard of the academic profession. 

学术写作注意事项中的第三点,除了技巧五「准确的遣词用字」与技巧六「适当的第三人称与主动」外,应该注意的下一个原则就是语调。所谓的语调就是学术论文所要求的表达风格。简言之,写作时应该使用「正式」的语调,换个词来解释,那就是「专业感」。写作必须合乎学术界的专业要求。

“Formal writing” does not imply the use of pretentious language, which can be characterized as stilted or pompous or stiff. Rather, formal writing acknowledges a paper's seriousness of subject and gravity of purpose. Formal language does not pretend to do anything beyond communicate clearly . Adjectives that merely adorn are unwelcome; florid prose is particularly inappropriate. 

「正式写作」并不意味着使用矫揉造作的用词,因为这样会让文章显得生硬、浮夸且僵化。正式写作透露出,作者清楚了解到文章主题的严肃,撰写目的之慎重。除了清楚表达旨意外,正式写作不需无谓的矫饰:具装饰目的的形容词不受欢迎,华丽的行文更是格格不入。

Informal writing violates these principles because its purpose is entirely different. Informal language entertains, or casually conveys a message. It exaggerates for literary or humorous effect and otherwise embellishes a central thought with whimsical flourishes. All of this is laudable when in character. However, it is entirely out of character for a purposeful academic paper. 

非正式写作违反这些原则,主要原因在于写作目的完全不同。非正式的写作文章,目的是娱乐读者,或以随性表现来传达讯息。为展现文学、幽默的口吻,非正式写作的作者随时可夸饰或以滑稽、华丽的词藻修饰论文的中心论点。只要写作得当,这些手法固然值得嘉奖;然而,对严谨的学术论文而言,这类风格显然极不适当。

Nor is scholarly writing marked by emotional intrusions. Scholarship, after all, is an intellectual exercise. Academic papers are dedicated to ideas, not feelings. Thinking, not emoting, should drive a serious academic writer. The language employed in the paper should have the tensile strength of a tempered thought, rather than the ductile strength of an emotional appeal. 

学术写作也不应掺杂个人情绪。学术作品毕竟是智识的结晶,而论文的重心是论点,不该是情感。促使写作者的动力应该是来自创新思考而非个人情绪。论文的论据应该是历经千锤百炼所获的坚定实证,而非诉诸情感的柔弱论点。

As a rule, shorthand expression is not acceptable in an academic paper. Therefore, contractions are out. Abbreviations should be avoided. Jargon is inappropriate, whether elevated, as in specialized technical language, or demeaning, as in a pejorative gibe. Any truncated or colloquial expression invites ambiguity. For a paper to endure, it must be expressed in enduring language. 

一般来说,「简写」难登大雅之堂。其中包括,缩写不宜出现;长字不可被缩短;技术行话,不论多专业或是多富含技术性,此类意含嘲讽的写法皆不宜使用。任何缩写或口语的用法只会模糊句意。文章若想名垂不朽,就必须用经得起时间考验的字词写作文章。

All of this should come naturally for a writer whose sole purpose is to honestly share insight and discovered truth. The substance of a paper should be enough to induce in a reader the hoped-for sense of pleasure and revelation. Attempts to artificially convey such sensations through artful word choice usually boomerang. Clear, unadorned writing lets a reader see a paper's real worth. 

学术论文作者的中心目的,只要忠实表达独特洞见与发现新的实证论据,那么他的写作自然而然会合乎上述一切原则,单凭文章表述的内容就足以使读者如获至宝般的喜悦与受到启发。倘若试图以华丽造作的言词来追求这种喜悦与成就,通常是自曝其短、行不通的。清楚、朴实的写作手法,便足以让读者感受论文的真正价值。

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