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Report代写:有哪三种中断句子的方式?

Dueduedue官方博客2017-11-06report代写 470 0A+A-

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我最近撰写了与破折号相关的内容,原本以为这会是个小主题,结果我发现有关破折号的内容还真不少。因此,我要再度延续这个议题,内容将特别着重于「在句子中断时,要如何决定使用哪一种标点符号」。  

让我们从最基本的想法着手:句子中断。在何时与如何中断句子呢?句子中断是个例外情形,因此不可过度使用。然而,的确有时候我们需要增加额外的资讯到句子中。请思考以下三个范例。 

范例:

Academic publishing (an activity that can be difficult for new scholars) is crucial to promotion and funding early in an academic's career.

Academic publishing, an activity that can be difficult for new scholars, is crucial to promotion and funding early in an academic's career.

Academic publishing—an activity that can be difficult for new scholars—is crucial to promotion and funding early in an academic's career.

您比较喜欢以上哪一种方式?十之八九是第二种方式,这特定的中断方式最好是使用逗号。使用逗号是中断句子最不突兀的方式;括号告诉读者某内容是不重要且不值得融入到句子中;而破折号使读者注意到内容。在这个情况下,应该以逗号处理,因为必须提及该重点,却不需要特别强调。 以下是关于不重要句子中断的范例(例如:科技资讯、日期、术语厘清)。 

范例:

The computer (a Dell Inspiron 1525) was put inside a case and was then used to measure impact frequencies.

Thomas Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman.

Evaluations were conducted in elementary schools (kindergarten through grade six) and junior high schools (grades seven through nine).

在上述每个例子中,括号似乎是最佳的选择;实际上,在这种情况下使用逗号将要求我们使用额外的字词,并且会将读者的注意力吸引至实用却乏味无趣的资讯。   然而,以下有一些关于使用括号不明确的范例。

范例:

Papers that are rejected (due to either poor English or incomplete research) do not receive a second peer review.

Passive voice errors (among other grammar mistakes) were among the mistakes the reviewers mentioned.

在这些错误之中,最常见的包含不恰当或模糊的语句(例如:过多的试探性文字或致歉的双引号)以及代名词的错误(例如:模棱两可及遗失的先行词)。 我会建议不要在这类例子中使用括号,由于括号内的资讯,通常表示不重要且没有什么价值,误用括号会错误引导读者对资讯重要性的判断。在这两个例子中,我认为使用逗号会比使用括号来的恰当。现在让我们暂时回到破折号。正如我们在先前的电子报中所见,破折号指出某内容值得读者额外的注意。   

范例:

The issues that prevent doctoral students from writing—most importantly, their lack of familiarity with academic vocabularies—are a serious concern for advising professors.

我们也得知当使用逗号让句子变得更为复杂时,在这样的情况下,我们应该使用破折号来中断句子,尽管中间介入的内容并非特别值得注意。 请思考以下这两个范例。 

范例:

Since editors are dependent on domain knowledge, generally collected from style guides, experts, and researchers, the development of domain editing guidelines should involve careful research.

Since editors are dependent on domain knowledge—generally collected from style guides, experts, and researchers—the development of domain editing guidelines should involve careful research.

在我看来,第二个句子较易阅读。然而,破折号是为了使文意清晰而非作强调之用。不论您的使用习惯如何,重要的是找到平衡;在某些情况下,我会透过重述的方式而非使用破折号来解决这类的问题。

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