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Report代写:完美撰题的八大原则

Dueduedue官方博客2018-03-19report代写 586 0A+A-

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原则一:了解研究报告题目Understand the assignment

When a professor assigns a paper to a class, the implicit understanding is that a student will produce a paper in harmony with the assignment. The submitted paper may or may not be competently researched and well-written, but at the very least it is expected to be in the assigned area of research. Yet instructors still are disappointed to receive papers on, say, William Shakespeare's classic family tragedies when the assignment was on the Bard's sonnets.

教授指派报告时,通常预期学生的文章必须切合作业题旨。无论学生缴交的文章是否研究周详、写作优美,起码必须符合指定的研究领域。不过,如果教授指派的作业是莎士比亚的十四行诗,收到报告却讨论他的经典家庭悲剧,这份报告还是达不到标准。

Researching and writing a paper that almost meets the assigned criteria isn't good enough. Professors are the experts in their disciplines and in their classrooms. They are familiar with the many facets of a subject. They intentionally assign papers on one slice of a broader subject in the expectation that students will examine that slice in some depth. When a student chooses to write on another facet of the subject, it not only is disappointing, it portends a failing grade.

研究与写作报告不能只求差强人意。教授是该学科的专家,也很了解班上的学生。教授对一个主题的诸多面向知之甚详,如果有意从广泛的主题中指定一个面向研究,表示期望学生深入探讨此面向。学生如果转而研究主题的另一个面向,作业不但达不到标准,成绩大概也不及格。

Sometimes the fault lies with a professor for not clearly laying out the assignment. Sometimes it is the student who fails to grasp an assignment and to question it. As Cool Hand Luke famously said, “What we've got here is a failure to communicate .” But ultimately it is the student who will suffer the most when such confusion occurs, so it is the student who must clear away the confusion before proceeding. Always know the assignment before beginning to fulfill it.

有时候教授没有把题目解释清楚,有时则是学生没有领会题目,也没有问清楚,就像《铁窗喋血》电影中的对白:「我们沟通不良」。但说到底,如果厘不清状况,受罪的是学生,所以学生在开始写报告前一定要先厘清题目。记住,开始进行撰写前,务必确实了解作业题目。

原则二:确认研究报告的主题范围Clearly identify the parameters of an assigned topic

This suggestion is closely related to the first one, which was to understand an assignment. But rather than dealing with miscommunication between student and instructor, this suggestion has to do with a writer's judgment. Case in point: A clear-thinking student in a culinary curriculum who is assigned an academic paper on tuna should ultimately conclude that a paper on the health benefits of tuna salad is more appropriate than a paper on the economics of tuna fishing.

上周提到的原则一是了解研究报告的题目,原则二与原则一有关,但不是处理师生沟通不良,而是与作者的判断有关。举例来说,如果读烹饪的学生要写一份与鲔鱼有关的学术文章,清楚思考后,应该知道比起讨论鲔鱼捕捞的经济,更适合讨论鲔鱼沙拉对健康的好处。

Yet professors are regularly surprised by topical tangents. Students sometimes ending up fishing for good grades in strange and irrelevant places. Unfortunately for them, the result is a marked-down paper. This doesn't mean that instructors don't appreciate writers who bring fresh ideas and subjects to a topical mix. Willingness to stretch a topic is an indication of intellectual heft and confidence. But stretch a topic too far and usually it will collapse into irrelevancy.

即使如此,教授还是经常收到文不对题的报告。有些学生想获得好成绩,报告内容却莫名其妙又与主题南辕北辙,当然就拿不到好成绩。教授并不是不欣赏学生在题目中整合新鲜的想法与主题,愿意扩展题目展现了学生的学术能力与自信;但若是扩展太远,往往因为离题而写出失败的文章。

A general guideline to follow in evaluating the relevancy of a subject is to work outward from the core. If the assigned topic is tuna, for example, a concentric line of reasoning might go like this: Tuna – Fresh / Canned – Properties of canned tuna in water / oil – Albacore vs. Pacific bluefin – Mercury vs. low fats – Protein content – Tuna hash vs. Grilled tuna – and so on. While the process can go on for some time, it should end well before Charlie the Tuna is considered.

评估主题是否相关有一条通则,就是写作时从核心向外探索。举例来说,如果题目是鲔鱼,思考论证的同心圆逻辑应该是:鲔鱼-罐头或新鲜鲔鱼-水煮与油渍鲔鱼的特性-长鳍鲔鱼与太平洋蓝鳍鲔鱼-含汞量与低脂肪-蛋白质含量-鲔鱼马铃薯或煎烤鲔鱼…等等。诸如此类的清单可以延伸下去,但如果讨论到鲔鱼罐头品牌的卡通吉祥物 Charlie the Tuna ,就表示你离题太远啦。

原则三 留意潜藏在教材与其他地方的研究主题Be alert to potential topics in course material and elsewhere

Sometimes the perfect topic is perfectly hidden … right under your nose. When an assignment is given in a class, the tendency is to focus on the assignment as if it exists separate from the rest of your intellectual activity. Not true. Assignments do not occur in vacuums. They are part of what is going on around you in the class—and outside the class. All knowledge is part of the same intellectual continuum; the sooner this is understood, the fuller a learning experience becomes.

有时候最棒的研究题目藏在最意想不到的地方-就藏在你的眼皮底下。一般人常把教授出的作业和其他研究分开来看,殊不知作业并不是单独存在。作业不仅与课堂上的一切有关,也与课堂外的一切有关。所有学问都属于一个连续的知识体系,早点明白这个道理,才能让所学更为完整。

So the first place to begin a search for a topic is in the class material itself. Lectures. Textbooks. Laboratory or field experiences. Even conversations with classmates contain the seeds of ideas. This might seem to be a superfluous suggestion, yet too many students turn off their minds when the class bell rings, or a formal discussion period ends. Learning to listen engagingly at unstructured times and to critically explore material in depth will help the topic search.

因此,首先可以从课堂教材寻找研究主题,无论是授课内容、教科书、实验或研究过程都能多加探索,班上同学的对话讨论也可能成为灵感来源。这个建议听起来或许有点多余,但许多学生往往下课铃一响,正式讨论时间一结束,就把研究心思关起来。如果能学会在平日就积极聆听,认真、深入探索教材内容,对寻找研究题目一定助益良多。

The other great place to look for topical revelation is in wholly unrelated reading material. Almost regardless of how specialized a research assignment is, valuable insight can be gleaned from general circulation publications. Sometimes a popular writer's approach to a completely different subject can suggest a new academic approach. Or a word might jump out that sparks fresh thinking. The world is awash with ideas. Splash around in it and see what you can find.

与研究无关的读物是另一个寻找研究题目的好地方;不论研究领域多专门,几乎都可以在一般读物里寻获宝贵的洞见。有时发现畅销作家处理完全不同主体的方法,可进而助于找出新的学术研究方法;有时某个词汇突然跳出来,也能激发新鲜的想法。世上充斥着各式各样的想法,探索世界,你一定能有所收获。

原则四 保持心胸开放 Keep an open mind

This suggestion really shouldn't be necessary. An open mind should be a chief characteristic of any writer laboring in the academic field. The whole purpose of academia is to learn and, in the learning, to expand the body of knowledge that undergirds understanding and progress. Learning is stifled by barriers to learning; the most insidious of these is the closed mind. So in searching for a research topic, an academic writer should be open to virtually all possibilities.

心胸开放是学术领域作者应有的基本特质,本来不必特别提出。学术研究就是为了学习,并在学习过程中扩展整体学识、增进理解与推动进步。阻碍学习的因素很多,其中最隐而不显的障碍就是保守封闭的思想。所以学术作者寻找研究主题时,应该对所有可能保持开放。

One of the indicators of openness is the capacity for surprise. When a mind is partly or entirely shuttered, it is less receptive to peripheral flashes of insight. It is so focused on a preconceived agenda that it simply doesn't sense glancing inspiration. A writer open to inspiration is more apt to be startled by a new thought, which might enter his mind through an unrelated conversation. Such revelations are the direct result of a person's willingness to be surprised.

开放的思想有项指标,就是能体悟到出人意表之处。如果思想保守或完全封闭,即使隐约有所体悟,也很难好好把握。太执着于预定的步骤,脑海里就没有空间容纳转瞬即逝的灵光。写作时若能敞开心胸、拥抱灵感,就更容易受新思想启发,从无关的对话中采撷新的看法。愿意接纳新奇的想法,就能直接受益。

The rest of the story is how a surprising idea is handled. A closed-minded person dismisses such an idea because it disrupts his ordered mindset. An open-minded person muses upon it. Explores it. Evaluates it. Weighs it. Only then might the person drop the idea because it is found to be wanting or, better yet, to abandon it in favor of yet another idea spawned by the first one. The beauty of openness is that it is expansive in nature. Growth and learning are the natural results.

除了察觉新奇的想法,还要知道如何运用。心态保守的人对新的想法不屑一顾,害怕这种想法会扰乱他们规规矩矩的思考方式。心态开明的人则会潜心钻研,探索、评估、权衡新的想法,判断这个想法是否有所不足,再将之放下;或是从中衍生另一个新的思想,所以抛弃原先的想法,这种情况更理想。开放的心态本身广阔无垠,自然有助学习与成长。

原则五 判断主题的深度和广度 Determine the depth and breadth of a possible topic

This suggestion might seem to put an extra burden on a writer, but the opposite is the case. Nothing is more difficult than to write in depth on a topic that is shallow. Nothing is more challenging than to write substantively about a subject that is transparently simplistic. In such cases, writers resort to setting up straw arguments, belaboring the obvious, and larding the paper with adjectives, adverbs, general wordiness, and sometimes the kitchen sink and cabinetry.

这个建议听起来似乎让作者又多了一份负担,然而实际上刚好相反。写作研究报告时,最困难的莫过于深入分析一个肤浅的主题,最痛苦的莫过于严肃讨论一个简单不过的题目。如果执意这么做,只能言不及义、满纸空话,东加一个形容词、西添一个副词,文章多半冗长空洞,甚至琐碎平庸。

Know thy topic—but not too quickly. If a writer can instantly see how to proceed with writing about a possible topic, the topic probably is too facile to seriously consider. Genuinely complex topics for a paper are not that transparent. They are too deep to have their bottoms seen. They hide undercurrents of information that only can be discovered by diving into them. On the other hand, sometimes they are too deep for a paper. Discerning a topic's depth is important.

写作要了解主题,但不要急于一时。如果能立刻看出主题的写作方向,表示此主题可能太为浅显,不值得深入探究。真正复杂、适合写研究报告的题目通常无法轻易看透,其内涵深不可测,只有深入探究才能发现其中蕴含的讯息。然而,有时候主题却太过深奥,不适合写研究报告。因此判断主题的深度是非常重要的。

The other important dimension to consider is breadth. A topic worth writing about should have wide enough application to have value beyond whatever grade is earned by its writer. For example, the pin oak tree might be too narrow a biological topic unless one incorporates the tree's migration to Australia. On the other hand, as with depth, a topic can be too broad to be addressed in a paper. A thorough survey of depth and breadth is key in any topic selection.

此外也应考量题目的广度,值得探讨的题目应该能广泛运用,除了可以让作者拿到分数,应该还有其他价值。例如,单纯以针栎树为主题范围可能太狭窄,但可以将讨论结合针栎树如何迁徙到澳洲。此外,就像题目可能太深奥,同样也可能太广泛而不适合写研究报告。选择主题前,切记彻底了解题目的深度与广度。

原则六 力求主题创新Strive for originality in a topic

The old saying is that there is nothing new under the sun. Even sayings are old. It is true that the first writer of an academic paper could choose from a longer list of unwritten-about topics than is possible to find today. Consequently, a search now for an original topic is much longer. In fact, a wholly original subject might not exist, depending upon the discipline. Still, enough nuances do exist to allow today's writers to bring fresh perspective to a topic, and that is sufficient.

俗话说,太阳底下没有新鲜事,不过这些俗话也不新鲜了。确实,比起现在的研究者,初期的研究者有更多从未研究过的题目可以选择,因此现在想寻找创新的题目,必须花更长的时间,有些学门甚至可能完全缺乏原创的题目。不过,题目间还是有些细微的差异,可以让现在的研究者为主题带来新意,而这样就足够了。

The first rule in the search for an original topic is that a writer must want to find one. While a student's willingness to tiresomely revisit a tired subject will satisfy an assignment, it will not land the student a grade in the upper echelon of scores. Those are reserved for fresh thinkers. So in considering a topic, examine it from the standpoint of (1) how often it has been addressed and (2) how much fresh insight is possible this time around. If it fails this freshness test, drop it.

寻找原创主题的第一守则,就是你要愿意去找。学生写作业时,如果不厌其烦地讨论一个老掉牙的题目,或许可以交差,但分数大概不会太高。只有想法新颖,才能拿到好成绩。所以思考题目时,可以从两个观点来检验:第一,这个题目是否常常讨论?第二,这次讨论是否能带出新颖的见解?如果从这个小测试里,发现题目毫无新意,那么最好放弃。

Selection of a topic gives a professor a glimpse of the character of a student. Academic writers are first of all academic thinkers whose brains are attuned to challenge, discovery, and the search for information that expands the common base of knowledge. Any student unwilling to put real effort into this process is only loitering in the academic realm, rather than establishing himself there. A serious search for original material is one of the defining markers of a serious student.

教授从学生选的题目里,可以大概了解学生的个性。学术研究者的思考会表现出学术特质,偏好挑战、追求新发现、热衷于寻找资讯以扩展知识的基础。不愿真正投入这个过程的学生,只是在学术圈胡混,不会有所建树。严谨地寻找原创题目的材料,才是认真学生的写照。

原则七 勇敢探索学科的边缘领域Don’t be afraid to explore the edge of a subject

As in the previous guideline about an original topic, this suggestion is about how to make a paper distinctive from hundreds of similar papers. The recommendation is to look toward the edges of a subject where previous researchers have been reluctant to explore. After all, while plowing the same ground sometimes turns up new topical material, an aspiring researcher is very likely to find fresher, more compelling information by turning over rocks on the edge of the field.

这项守则类似前一项「力求主题创新」守则,都能让论文从数百篇类似的文章中脱颖而出,而方法就是关注学科的边缘领域,探索过去研究者未加探究的主题。在同一块领域钻研,或许有时能发现新的主题,但是若研究者充满抱负,在边缘领域不懈地耕耘,或许能发现更新鲜、更有说服力的资讯。

Working the edges of a subject doesn't lessen the value of a paper. Content is king regardless of where it is found. Relevancy is not related to how central a topic is, but how it contributes to the overall understanding of a subject. For example, everyone might know that a minor emperor was a stout man, yet no one know that he secretly wore a padded cummerbund to enhance his girth, believing it befit his rank. Such revelation can introduce new psychological perspective.

论文的价值不会因为主题较边缘而减少,因为不管资料从哪里发现,内容才是重点。论文的价值无关主题是否为学科重心,重点是能否促进了解整体学科。例如,多数人都晓得minor emperor是不具影响力的君王,即使他会暗地里配戴有填充物的宽腰带增加腰围,想借此与他的地位相衬,世人也不觉得重要或值得探究。其实,像这类人们口中所谓的「小事」,若深入去研究,反而说不定能找到特别的新发现,对于心理学研究者而言,这样的发现或许有机会引入新的心理学观点。

Looking to the edge of a subject for new topical material is not the same as being edgy, though being edgy is OK. Edgy might be defined as flirting with irrelevancy by looking “way out there” for a topic. The key is not to drift so far from a core subject that one loses sight of an assignment. Professors are not amused by such independence. Nevertheless, one should feel free to explore the entire range of a subject, hither and yon, with an open mind about what you discover yon .

探索学科的边缘领域,寻找新的主题,不代表就是急躁,虽然急躁也没什么不好。另一方面,急躁也可说是寻找主题时「扯太远」,没有认真思考主题是否适切。关键是拿捏得当,勿过度偏离学科核心,导致无法掌握作业主旨。教授不会喜欢你离题太远的。然而,你还是可以任意探索整个学科范围,毋须设限,并用开放的心态看待彼处的发现。

原则八 寻找耐人寻味、有启发力的题目Find a topic that is intriguing or can teach

In choosing a research paper topic, a writer should make a genuine effort to find one that forces him to learn something. This rule is a tough one for someone who already knows it all. For the rest of us, it applies. A familiar topic not only is more likely to have been beaten to death by previous writers, it is apt to produce nothing new. Whereas an intriguing topic will spur a curious researcher to dig, and the writer's evident conviction will come through in the paper.

选择研究论文题目时,应该竭力寻找能让你从中学习的题目。这条原则对于已对主题知之甚详的人来说不容易,却很适合其他人。常见的题目可能已经由前人彻底讨论过,也不容易有新意,而耐人寻味的题目能驱使富求知欲的研究者深入探索,在整篇论文中清楚展现研究决心。

Obviously, a writer can be too ambitious. Even when preliminary research indicates a plethora of sources are available on a topic of genuine interest, the time allowed to plumb them all might be too short. Or the complexity of a multi-layered topic might preclude handling the topic in a single paper. So finding a possible topic to be interesting is only good to a point; it also must be a topic that is suitable for encapsulating in a research paper of finite length.

当然,研究者也可能野心太高。即使初步研究显示你感兴趣的题目有非常丰富的资料,也可能时间不足,无法一一探究;也可能题目层次丰富,较为复杂,无法在单篇论文中讨论清楚。所以题目除了有趣,也必须适合在篇幅有限的论文中讨论。

In short, daring to delve into unfamiliar territory is a test of one's desire to produce a paper of worth. It is an indicator of the mindset of an academic writer. Unwillingness to explore and to risk failure in a quest for learning suggests that a writer is a poseur. The cachet of scholarship and academia—and, of course, the incredible benefit of knowledge—is enviable, but the prestige comes from hard work and exemplary conviction. In other words, the title “scholar” is earned.

简言之,勇于钻研不熟悉的领域,可以考验一个人是否真的想写出有价值的论文,展现学者的气度。在求知过程中,不愿意潜心钻研、忍受失败,表示研究者不过是装腔作势。在我们羡慕学者的名声,及知识的无尽好处时,别忘了这些威望来自勤勉为学,以及足为典范的研究心志。可以说,学者的名号是奋斗的果实。

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